Yadda ake Cire wani Abu daga Takardun XML a C #?

Mahimman ci gaba a cikin sauƙi na ƙira da bayyana bayyanannu ba tare da sadaukar da dacewa da baya ko gaba ba;Goyan bayan sigar sigar harsunan XML ...

Mahimman ci gaba a cikin sauƙi na ƙira da bayyana bayyanannu ba tare da sadaukar da dacewa da baya ko gaba ba;

  • Goyan bayan sigar sigar harsunan XML da aka ayyana ta amfani da ƙayyadaddun Tsarin XML, gami da tsarin canja wurin XML don tsararrun kanta.

  • Waɗannan manufofin sun ɗan bambanta; . 0 da 1. 1

    1. Ƙara goyan bayan sigar (yayin yarda cewa wannan na iya zama ɗan rushewa ga tsarin canja wurin XML akan gefe)

    2. Bada gyare-gyaren kwaro (sai dai idan mun tantance cewa gyaran yana da ruguzawa don sakin maki a takamaiman yanayin)

    3. Bada damar canje-canjen edita

    4. Bada sauye-sauyen ƙira su shafi ɗabi'a a cikin lamuran gefe

    5. Bada izinin sauye-sauye marasa lalacewa ga nau'in matsayi (domin ingantacciyar goyan bayan ƙa'idodin ƙasashen duniya na yanzu da masu zuwa da shawarwarin W3C)

    6. Bada izinin tsaftace ƙira don canza tsarin sassa (canjin aikin yana iyakance ga lokuta na gefe)

    7. Kada a ƙyale manyan canje-canje ga ayyuka

    8. Bada izini kawai canje-canje zuwa tsarin haɗin kai na XML waɗanda ake buƙata ta ƙugiya masu sarrafa sigar da gyaran kwaro

    Dangane da dacewa, gaba ɗaya burin shine

    • Duk daftarin tsarin da ke bin sigar 1. Sigar 1 kuma yakamata ta dace da sigar 0 na wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai. 1, da 1 yakamata su kasance da halayen tabbatarwa iri ɗaya. 0 da 1. 1 aiwatarwa (sai dai mai yiwuwa a cikin lamuran gefe da sakamakon bayanan PSVI);

    • Mafi yawan takardun tsari sun dace da sigar 1. Hakanan ya kamata a bi siga 1 na wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai. 0 ban da duk wani rashin daidaituwa da ke haifar da tallafin sigar, da kuma lokacin da suka dace da sigar 1. 0 (ko kuma an sanya su daidai ta hanyar cire bayanan sigar) yakamata su kasance da halayen tabbatarwa iri ɗaya kamar 1. 0 da 1. 1 aiwatarwa (tare da yuwuwar ban da lamuran gefe da cikakkun bayanai na sakamakon PSVI);

    1. 2 Manufar

    Ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun yana bayyana ƙayyadaddun wurare don amfani da nau'ikan bayanai don tattara abun ciki, kamar takaddun da ke ɗauke da ko duba DTDs waɗanda ke ba da nau'ikan ga abubuwa da halaye. Koyaya, marubutan daftarin aiki, na al'ada da masu jigilar bayanai na XML, akai-akai suna buƙatar babban matakin duba nau'in don tabbatar da ƙarfi a fahimtar daftarin aiki da musayar bayanai.

    Teburin da ke ƙasa yana ba da misalan misalai guda biyu na misalin XML tare da fayyace nau'ikan bayanai. Misalin hagu shine daftarin lissafin kuɗi, yayin da misali a hannun dama memo ne ko yuwuwar saƙon imel a cikin XML.

    Takardun bayanai masu daidaitawa ____0
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>

    Daftarin ya ƙunshi kwanaki da lambobin waya da yawa, gajarta ta gidan waya don jiha (wanda aka zaɓa daga lissafin ƙididdiga na ƙimar da aka yarda), da lambar ZIP (a ƙayyadadden tsari na yau da kullun). kwanan wata, lambar waya, adireshin imel, da ƙimar "mahimmanci" (daga jerin zaɓuɓɓuka kamar "ƙananan," "matsakaici," ko "high")

    Ingantattun ƙuntatawa akan abubuwan da ke cikin al'amuran sun wanzu a cikin waɗannan lokuta biyu, waɗanda ba a bayyana su a cikin XML DTDs.

    1. 3 Dogara akan Wasu Takaddun Shaida

    An jera wasu buƙatun waɗanda wannan ya dogara da su

    Wannan ƙayyadaddun yana bayyana wasu nau'ikan bayanai waɗanda suka dogara da ma'anoni a ciki da; . Sigar 0 (,) da sigar 1. 1 (,) na waɗannan buƙatun. A cikin kowane aikace-aikacen wannan ƙayyadaddun, zaɓi na 1. 0 ko kuma 1. Ɗaya daga cikin misalin datatype shine

    Wannan ƙayyadaddun aiwatarwa masu dacewa na iya samar da ko dai 1. 1-based datatypes ko 1. 0-based datatypes, ko duka biyun. Idan duka biyun sun sami goyan baya, an yanke shawarar kan waɗanne nau'ikan bayanai don amfani da su a cikin takamaiman yanayin kima. ya kamata ya kasance karkashin ikon mai amfani.

    Lura. Dole ne aiwatarwa su bi wannan ƙayyadaddun lokacin duba ingancin shigar da XML na nau'in bayanai. zai iya bayar da hazaka don amfani da lamba daya. Idan an yiwa shigarwar lakabin XML 1, nau'ikan bayanai sune 1. 1, da kuma amfani da 1. Idan an yiwa shigarwar lakabin 1, ana dawo da nau'ikan bayanai 0. 0, amma wannan heuristic ya kamata ya kasance ƙarƙashin ikon mai amfani a cikin yanayin da masu amfani ke son karɓar XML 1. 1 shigarwa, amma an inganta shi ta amfani da 1. Karɓi nau'ikan bayanai na XML 1 ko 0. Tabbatar da shigarwar 0 tare da 1. 1 datatypes.

    Wannan ƙayyadaddun yana amfani da ƙayyadaddun bayanin EBNF. akwai bambance-bambance. Dubi ƙayyadaddun bayanai don ƙarin cikakken bayanin bayanin EBNF

    1. 4 Bukatu

    Takardar ta fayyace takamaiman buƙatu waɗanda dole ne a cika su ta wannan ƙayyadaddun, waɗanda ke bayyana cewa dole ne a yi amfani da Harshen Tsarin XML.

    1. samar da nau'ikan bayanai na asali kamar byte, kwanan wata, lamba, jeri, SQL da Java na farko datatypes, da sauransu. ;

    2. ƙirƙirar nau'in tsarin da ya dace don shigo da / fitarwa daga tsarin bayanai (e. g. g. , dangantaka, abu, OLAP);

    3. bambanta tsakanin buƙatun don wakilcin bayanan lexical vs. wadanda ke kula da bayanan da ke cikin tushe;

    4. ba da damar ƙirƙirar bayanan bayanan mai amfani, kamar nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga nau'ikan bayanan da ke akwai kuma waɗanda zasu iya samun wasu kaddarorin (e. g. g. , iyaka, daidaito, tsayi, tsari)

    1. 5 Girma

    Ana iya amfani da nau'ikan bayanan da aka ayyana a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai a cikin Tsarin XML.

    1. 6 Kalmomi

    Kalmomin da aka yi amfani da su don siffanta XML Schema Datatypes an ayyana su a jikin ƙayyadaddun bayanai. Ana amfani da sharuɗɗan da aka ayyana a cikin jeri mai zuwa don gina waɗannan ma'anar da kuma bayyana ayyukan na'ura mai sarrafa bayanai.

    [Ma'anarsa. ]  don dacewa

    Wannan ƙayyadaddun ya ƙunshi fasalin kawai don tabbatar da cewa tsare-tsaren da suke amfani da wannan fasalin sun kasance masu dacewa da shi.

    [Ma'anarsa. ]  matsayi

    (Na kirtani ko sunaye. ) Dole ne igiyoyi biyu ko sunayen da ake kwatanta su zama iri ɗaya. Haruffa a cikin TS EN ISO/IEC 10646 tare da wakilci mai yawa (e. g. g. Haruffa masu nau'ikan da aka riga aka tsara da kuma na tushe) sun dace ne kawai idan wakilcin su a cikin igiyoyin biyu iri ɗaya ne. Ba a yin nadawa harka

    (Na kirtani da dokokin nahawu). ) Kirtani yayi daidai da samar da nahawu idan kuma idan memba ne na yaren da wannan samarwa ya haifar.

    [Ma'anar. ]   mayi

    Tsare-tsare, takaddun tsari, da masu sarrafawa na iya, amma ba a buƙatar su, suyi aiki kamar yadda aka bayyana

    [Ma'anar. ]   ya kamata

    Ana ba da shawarar cewa ƙira, takaddun ƙira, da na'urori masu sarrafawa su yi aiki kamar yadda aka bayyana, amma ana iya samun ingantattun dalilan da ya sa ba sa;

    [Ma'anar. ]   dole

    (Na schemas da schema takardun. ) Shirye-shiryen da takaddun dole ne su kasance kamar yadda aka bayyana; .

    (Na masu sarrafawa. ) Dole ne masu sarrafawa suyi aiki daidai da ƙayyadaddun bayanai

    [Ma'anar. ]   ba dole ba

    Ba a yarda da tsare-tsare, takaddun tsari, da masu sarrafawa suyi aiki kamar yadda aka bayyana ba; .

    [Ma'anarsa. ]  kuskure

    Rashin bin ƙa'idodin wannan ƙayyadaddun ta hanyar tsari ko takaddar tsari

    Sai dai kamar yadda aka ƙayyade, masu sarrafawa dole ne Bambance tsakanin tsare-tsare marasa kuskure (mai daidaitawa) da takaddun tsari; . dole ne ya bayar da rahoton gaskiyar; . Idan fiye da ɗaya daga cikin ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun wannan ƙayyadaddun an keta, nawa ne kuma waɗanne laifuka ne aka ruwaito.

    Lura. Rashin gazawar wani nau'in XML ko sifa don zama mai inganci akan takamaiman nau'in datatype a cikin takamaiman tsari ba gazawar yin aiki da wannan ƙayyadaddun ba don haka ba kuskure bane don dalilan wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai.

    [Ma'anarsa. ]  zabin mai amfani

    Zaɓin na'ura mai sarrafawa wanda aka bari ga mai amfani maimakon a daidaita shi don duk masu amfani ko amfanin na'urar

    Wannan ƙayyadaddun ya haɗa da bayanai kamar "Masu sarrafawa mai iya "a ga son mai amfani" yana nufin cewa na'urori za su yi takamammen hanya. mai iya bayar da hanyoyin da masu amfani zasu iya (i). e. processor invokers) don kunna ko kashe halayen da aka nuna. Na'urori masu sarrafawa waɗanda ba su bayar da irin waɗannan sarrafawar abokantaka na mai amfani dole ne su su yi halin da aka nuna. Na'urori masu sarrafawa waɗanda ke ba da irin wannan sarrafawar abokantaka na mai amfani dole ne ba da damar mai amfani ya kashe halin zaɓi.

    Lura. Abin da ake tsammani na irin waɗannan zaɓuɓɓukan shine cewa saitin tsoho zai kashe halin zaɓin da ake tambaya, yana ba shi damar kawai lokacin da mai amfani ya buƙace shi a sarari. Wannan, duk da haka, ba buƙatu ba ne don bin doka. Idan takardun aikin na'ura sun nuna cewa mai amfani zai iya kashe halin zaɓin, to, kiran na'urar ba tare da neman a kashe shi ba za'a iya fassara shi azaman neman kunna shi. Koyaya, ana buƙatar mai amfani ya sami damar kashe halin zaɓin

    Lura. Babu wani abu a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai da ke iyakance yadda masu sarrafawa ke ba masu amfani damar sarrafa zaɓuɓɓukan mai amfani. Zaɓuɓɓukan layi na umarni, zaɓuɓɓukan menu a cikin mahallin mai amfani da hoto, masu canjin yanayi, madadin tsarin kira a cikin tsarin tsarin aikace-aikacen, da sauran hanyoyin duk ana iya la'akari da su don samar da zaɓuɓɓukan mai amfani.

    1. 7 Takurawa da Gudunmawa

    Wannan ƙayyadaddun ya ƙunshi nau'ikan bayanai na yau da kullun guda uku game da abubuwan ƙira, wakilcin su na XML, da gudummawar su ga ingantaccen tsarin ƙirar bayanai.

    [Ma'anarsa. ]   Ƙuntatawa akan Tsare-tsare

    Ƙuntatawa akan abubuwan da aka tsara su kansu, i. e. e. Dole ne abubuwan da aka gyara su cika domin su zama sassan kwata-kwata. An fi samun samuwa a ciki

    [Ma'anarsa. ]   Ƙuntataccen wakilcin Tsari

    Ƙuntatawar XML akan wakilcin ɓangaren tsari.

    [Ma'anarsa. ]   Dokokin Tabbatarwa

    Abubuwan da aka tsara tsarin suna bayyana ƙuntatawa waɗanda dole ne abubuwan bayanan su hadu domin su zama ingantaccen tsari.

    2 Datatype System

    Wannan sashe yana bayyana tsarin ra'ayi wanda ke ƙarfafa tsarin datatype da aka ayyana a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai

    Nau'in bayanan da aka rufe a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai galibi sanannun ra'ayoyi ne na ƙididdiga kamar lamba da kwanan wata. Wannan ƙayyadaddun ba shine wurin da za a fayyace ƙayyadaddun waɗannan ra'ayoyin ba; . Wannan ƙayyadaddun, a gefe guda, za ta yi ƙoƙarin bayyana abubuwan da ba za a iya fahimta ba sosai yadda za a iya gane su cikin sauƙi da bambanta su da sauran abubuwan da za su iya ruɗe da su.

    Lura. Wannan ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun bayanai yana bayyana ayyuka da alaƙa kawai da ake buƙata don sarrafa tsari. Aikace-aikacen da ke amfani da waɗannan nau'ikan bayanai ana tsammanin gabaɗaya aiwatar da ƙarin ayyuka da/ko alaƙa da suka dace domin nau'in bayanan ya zama mai amfani gabaɗaya. Don wasu nau'ikan bayanai (e. g. ko) an ayyana su a wani bangare ta hanyar yin la'akari da wasu ƙayyadaddun bayanai waɗanda ke haifar da ƙuntatawa waɗanda ba sa cikin nau'ikan bayanai kamar yadda aka ayyana a nan, aikace-aikacen kuma na iya so su bincika cewa ƙimar sun dace da buƙatun da aka kayyade a sigar yanzu na ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun waje masu dacewa.

    2. 1 Datatype

    [Ma'anarsa. ]

    • A tarin dabi'u ne

    • A saitin dabi'u ne da ake amfani da su don wakiltar su

    • Ƙananan saitin ayyuka, alaƙa, da hanyoyin da suka shafi nau'in bayanai.

    Lura. Ayyuka da alaƙa kawai da ake buƙata don sarrafa tsari an ayyana su a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai. e. , yadda za a gano nau'ikan bayanan "ainihin duniya" da bambance-bambancen da aka yi nufin amfani da nau'ikan bayanan da aka ayyana a nan don musayar bayanai.

    Bugu da ƙari, yana da amfani akai-akai don samun juzu'i wanda ke ba da ma'auni ga kowane ƙima. Taswirar taswira daga wakilcin ƙamus zuwa ƙima sun dogara da mahallin mahallin don wasu nau'ikan bayanai, musamman kuma;

    Lura. An ayyana su don nau'ikan bayanai a duk inda aka ayyana su a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai. Lokacin da aka samo nau'in datatype ta amfani da fuskoki waɗanda ke takurawa kai tsaye, ana zubar da madaidaicin wakilcin lexical daga sararin ƙamus na kowace ƙima da aka kawar daga. Don irin wannan nau'in data nau'in juzu'i ne na nau'in sa kuma yana samar da kowane ƙimar da ta rage a cikin

    Fuskar, a daya bangaren, da kuma duk wasu fuskoki (), suna iyakance kai tsaye. Lokacin da aka ba da wakilci fiye da ɗaya don ƙimar da aka ba da, irin waɗannan fuskokin na iya cirewa yayin ba da izinin wakilcin ƙamus na daban; . . A irin waɗannan lokuta, babu wata hanya a ƙarƙashin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai. Aikace-aikace suna da kyauta don sarrafa shi duk yadda suka ga dama

    Lura. Wannan ƙayyadaddun yana amfani da gajeriyar nau'in "nau'in" lokacin da za a sa ran "datatype" mai tsawo (e. g. g. a cikin jimlolin "nau'in ƙungiyar," "nau'in lissafin," "nau'in tushe," "nau'in abu," da sauransu. Babu wani bambance-bambancen da aka yi niyya tsakanin sifofin waɗannan jimlolin da "nau'i" da waɗanda ke da "datatype";

    Sabanin haka, banbance tsakanin “datatype” da “simple type definition” ya ƙunshi ƙarin bayani. Ana bambanta nau'in bayanan ta,,, da sauransu. , kamar yadda aka bayyana a baya, ba tare da la'akari da takamaiman fuskoki ko wasu hanyoyin ma'anar da aka yi amfani da su a cikin ma'anar nau'i mai sauƙi don bayyana takamaiman ko. Ma'anoni masu sauƙi daban-daban tare da fuskoki daban-daban na iya kwatanta nau'in bayanai iri ɗaya

    2. 2 Wurin daraja

    2. 2. 1
    2. 2. 2
    2. 2. 3

    [Ma'anar. ]. . (Idan, yayin ƙaddamarwa, an taƙaita taswirar ta hanyar da ƙima ba ta da ma'ana, ana cire wannan ƙimar daga sararin darajar. ).

    Wuraren ƙima na Datatype su ne abstractions waɗanda aka ayyana su gwargwadon buƙata don fayyace su ga masu karatu

    Lura. Wuraren ƙima da ƙimar da ke ƙunshe a cikin su abstraction ne

    Bugu da ƙari, ana sa ran wasu aikace-aikacen za su ayyana ƙarin ayyuka masu dacewa da/ko alaƙa akan waɗannan wuraren ƙimar (e. g. ,. g. , Bugu da ƙari da ninkawa akan wurare masu ƙima na nau'ikan bayanai na lambobi daban-daban), kuma an ba su izinin sake fasalin ayyuka da alaƙa da aka ayyana a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun inda ya dace, muddin dangantakar da ayyukan da ake amfani da su don sarrafa ƙira sune waɗanda aka ayyana a nan.

    Za'a iya bayyana ma'anar datatype ta ɗaya daga cikin hanyoyi da yawa

    • axiomatically bayyana a wani wuri daga ainihin ra'ayi (ma'anar niyya) [duba]

    • lissafta kai tsaye daga ƙimar nau'in data da aka ayyana a baya (ma'anar tsawaitawa)

    • an ayyana ta hanyar iyakance nau'in bayanan da aka ayyana a baya zuwa takamaiman yanki mai ƙayyadaddun kaddarorin da aka bayar [duba]

    • an bayyana azaman saitin ƙimar da aka samo daga ɗaya ko fiye da aka ayyana (s) a baya ta takamaiman hanyar gini [duba kuma]

    Kowane sarari darajar yana buƙatar ainihin alaƙa da daidaito. Wasu wuraren darajar suna da alaƙar tsari, amma ba duka ba. An tsara wasu alaƙa ko ayyuka don ƴan nau'ikan bayanai don dalilan wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai

    2. 2. 1 Shaida

    A koyaushe ana ƙayyade alaƙar ainihi. Kowane sarari darajar yana da alaƙa ta ainihi ta ma'anarsa. Abubuwa biyu iri ɗaya ne idan kuma idan sun kasance iri ɗaya ne. i. e. , idan babu yadda za a raba su.  

    Lura. Wannan baya hana amfani da wakilcin ciki da yawa don ƙimar da aka ba da lokacin aiwatar da nau'ikan bayanai, muddin babu wata hanyar da ke cikin aiwatar da nau'in data (i). e. e. Ban da bit-string-kiyaye "simintin gyare-gyare" na datum zuwa wani nau'in data daban), za a bambanta wakilcin biyu

    An bambanta dabi'u daga nau'ikan bayanai daban-daban' ta hanyar wucin gadi a cikin alaƙar ainihi da aka ayyana a nan idan in ba haka ba za a ɗauki su iri ɗaya.

    GARGADI. Dole ne a kula yayin gano ƙima a cikin nau'ikan bayanai na farko. 1 ba 0. Wurin darajar ya ƙunshi 10000000009, kuma kowane na zahiri an tsara shi zuwa ƙimar mafi kusa, wato 0. 100000001490116119384765625), amma sun dace da dabi'u daban-daban

    Lura. Datatypes ba sa haifar da sababbin dabi'u; . . Sakamakon haka, '

    <cerealSizes xsi:type='sizes'> 8 10.5 12 </cerealSizes>
    
    5', wanda aka bi da shi azaman, '
    <cerealSizes xsi:type='sizes'> 8 10.5 12 </cerealSizes>
    
    5', da ake bi da shi azaman, da '
    <cerealSizes xsi:type='sizes'> 8 10.5 12 </cerealSizes>
    
    5', ana kula da su azaman duk suna nuna ƙima ɗaya. Ba daidai ba ne kawai, amma kuma iri ɗaya ne

    Idan an ba da jeri biyu A da B, A da B jerin iri ɗaya ne idan sun ƙunshi jeri iri ɗaya na ƙimar atomic. Abubuwan A da B sun yi daidai da abubuwan B, wanda duka biyun larura ne kuma isasshe yanayin wannan ainihi.

    Lura. Akwai fanko jeri ɗaya kawai sakamakon ƙa'idar da aka bayyana don asalin jeri. Jerin fanko da aka ayyana a matsayin yana da ba daidai ba ne kawai amma kuma yayi kama da wani lissafin fanko da aka ayyana a matsayin yana da

    2. 2. 2 Daidaito

    Ga kowane sarari darajar datatype, an ƙayyade alaƙar daidaito

    Daidaituwa, a gefe guda, ba dole ba ne ya rufe dukkan sararin darajar datatype (ko da yake yawanci yakan yi). Musamman, a cikin da kuma nau'ikan bayanai, NaN bai daidaita da kanta ba

    Lokacin yin ƙididdigewa, bincika ƙuntatawa na ainihi (a cikin mahallin), da kuma duba iyakokin ƙima, ana amfani da wannan alaƙar daidaito tare da ainihi. Lokacin yin odar da ta haɗa, ana amfani da ita tare da tsari. Dangantakar daidaiton da aka yi amfani da ita don kimanta maganganun XPath na iya bambanta

    Lura. Wannan sigar da ta gabata (1. 0), daidaito ya kasance koyaushe ainihi

    Nau'in bayanai, alal misali, yana da daidaiton da ba shine asalin ba (. 0), kuma wanda yankinsa ya keɓance ƙima ɗaya, NaN, don haka

    Ga wani misali, lokacin da aka canza ƙima zuwa, nau'in data a baya ya rasa duk wani bayanin ɓoyayyen lokaci-lokaci a cikin;

    Ƙimar daga wurare daban-daban na bayanan farko an sanya su ta hanyar wucin gadi a cikin ma'anar daidaiton da aka ayyana a nan, ko da idan ba haka ba za a ɗauki su daidai.

    A da B suna daidaita idan kuma kawai idan tsayinsu iri ɗaya ne kuma abubuwan su daidai suke. Jerin tsayi ɗaya mai ɗauke da ƙimar V1 da ƙimar atomic V2 daidai ne idan kuma kawai idan V1 yayi daidai da V2

    Don dalilan wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai, akwai alaƙa guda ɗaya na daidaito ga duk ƙimar kowane nau'in bayanai (ƙungiya na daidaitattun daidaitattun nau'ikan nau'ikan bayanai daban-daban, idan ana tunanin alaƙar su azaman nau'ikan nau'ikan da aka ba da umarnin). x= y  da  x ≠ y

    2. 2. 3 oda

    An tsara dangantakar oda don wasu nau'ikan bayanai da za a yi amfani da su wajen duba manyan iyakoki na sama da na ƙasa. . [Ma'anar. ]. Dabbobi biyu da ba su dace ba.

    Lokacin yin yanke shawara da suka shafi tsari, ana amfani da alaƙar oda tare da daidaito

    Wannan alakar da ta kasa da tsari tana nuni da '' (kuma sabaninta da ''>'), tsari mai rauni da '' (da juzu'insa da ''), da kuma abin da ya haifar da ''>', duk ana amfani da su.

    Lura. Tsarin rauni "ƙasa-ko-daidai" yana nufin "ƙasa-ko" ko "daidai," kuma a bayyane yake wanda shine. )

    Wuraren ƙima na nau'ikan bayanai na farko sun rabu don dalilai na wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai, koda kuwa abubuwan da suke wakilta ana tsammanin suna da ƙima ɗaya.

    Lura. Dangane da mahallin, kwatanta ƙima daga nau'ikan bayanai daban-daban na iya zama kuskure ko a'a

    Lokacin da aka yi don bincika ƙuntataccen ƙidayar, irin wannan kwatancen ba kuskure ba ne a cikin kansa, amma saboda babu ƙima biyu daga saiti daban-daban da suka yi daidai, kowane kwatancen dabi'u ba koyaushe zai zama ƙarya ba.

    Sabanin haka, ƙayyadaddun iyaka na sama ko ƙasa wanda ke cikin nau'in bayanan da ba daidai ba (kuma don haka tare da ƙimar datatype ya kamata a taƙaita) koyaushe kuskure ne. Sakamakon dokoki ne don daidaita ma'anar nau'i mai sauƙi, babba da ƙananan iyakoki, da ƙididdiga ƙididdiga. dole dole ne a zana daga sararin darajar datatype, wanda dole yana nufin daga nau'in data iri daya.

    Kwatanta darajar a cikin mahallin magana XPath (e. g. g. a cikin wani tabbaci ko a cikin ka'idojin aiki na nau'in yanayi) na iya haifar da kuskure mai ƙarfi a cikin kimantawa na maganganun XPath;

    2. 3 Taswirar Lexical da Taswirar Lexical

    [Ma'anarsa. ]

    [Ma'anarsa. ]

    [Ma'anarsa. ]

    Lura. Ma'anar taswirar nan daga cikin, amma ba uwa ba, nau'ikan bayanai. . Nau'in bayanan sun haɗa da ƙimar "marasa iyaka" waɗanda babu wakilcin ƙamus a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai

    Aiki ne (jimla) akan gaba ɗaya akan (maimakon kawai cikin) don nau'ikan bayanan atomic. . Kowane memba na taswirorin zuwa wani memba na, kuma kowace ƙima an tsara ta zuwa wani memba na.

    Don nau'ikan bayanai, ba koyaushe bane aiki saboda ƙima ɗaya na iya taswira zuwa ƙima daban-daban a cikin nau'ikan memba daban-daban. Aiki ne don nau'ikan bayanai idan kuma kawai idan na lissafin aiki ne

    [Ma'anar. ]. Ana amfani da kalmar musauha don duka jeri-nauyen halaye waɗanda ke cikin takamaiman iyali da waɗanda ba.

    Idan ƙirƙira ya gabatar da ƙimar facet (ko dai sabon ƙima don ko ƙayyadaddun fasalin aiwatarwa), madaidaicin canjin yanayin kirtani, idan ya canza kirtani kwata-kwata, na iya hana wannan kirtani daga samun amfani da nau'in data da aka samu. . e. , ba su cikin kewayon canji na facet) koyaushe ana cire su daga bayanan da aka samu

    Lura. Yana da mahimmanci a fahimci cewa, a cikin mahallin tsarin XML-inganci, akwai sauye-sauye na kirtani na shigarwa (wanda aka sarrafa ta hanyar facet da duk wani fasalin da aka ƙayyade) wanda ya haifar da sakamakon da ake so. .

    Idan aka yi amfani da tsarin da ke cirewa har ta kai cewa ɗaya ko fiye ba su da wani abu, to ana cire waɗannan dabi'u daga.

    Lura. Wannan na iya faruwa ta wata fuska ko wata, ko ta fuskar da aka bayyana a sama

    Idan abin da aka cirewa ya cire ƙima, ana cire su sai dai idan akwai ƙimar facet wanda aka ayyana tasirinsa don haifar da ƙima da aka sauke zuwa wata ƙima maimakon haka.

    Lura. A halin yanzu babu wasu bangarorin da ke da irin wannan tasiri

    Misali, '100' da '1. 0E2' nau'ikan bayanai ne daban-daban guda biyu waɗanda duka suna wakiltar ƙima ɗaya

    2. 3. 1 Taswirar Canonical

    Yayin da nau'ikan bayanan da aka ayyana a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun akai-akai suna da ƙima ɗaya (i. e. , kowane darajar datatype ana nuna shi da guda ɗaya a cikin sa), amma wannan ba koyaushe bane

    [Ma'anar. ]. .

    [Ma'anar. ] .

    ba a samuwa don nau'ikan bayanai masu dogaro da mahallin (i. e. e. , taswirorin taswira wanda darajar a ta dogara da mahallin da ke faruwa a ciki, ko igiyoyin haruffa waɗanda ƙila ko ba su da inganci dangane da mahallin)

    Lura. ana bayar da su don amfani da wasu aikace-aikace inda zai yiwu; .

    2. 4 Rarraba Datatype

    2. 4. 1
    2. 4. 1. 1
    2. 4. 1. 2
    2. 4. 1. 3
    2. 4. 2
    2. 4. 2. 1
    2. 4. 2. 2
    2. 4. 2. 3
    2. 4. 3
    2. 4. 4

    Yana da amfani a rarraba nau'ikan bayanan da aka ayyana a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun tare da ma'auni daban-daban, ma'anar kalmomin da za a iya amfani da su don siffanta nau'ikan bayanai da s waɗanda ke ayyana su.

    2. 4. 1 Atomic vs. Jerin vs. Ƙungiyoyin Datatypes

    Don farawa, mun bambanta tsakanin, da nau'ikan bayanai

    [Ma'anarsa. ]

    • [Ma'anarsa. ]

    • [Ma'anarsa. ]. Ana zana kimar da ke cikin jeri daga wasu nau'ikan data (ko saitin datatypes), wanda shine nau'in bayanan lissafin.

      Lura. Sakamakon ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun bayanai ne a cikin wannan takaddar (musamman kaddarorin da aka ƙayyade a ciki) cewa jerin na iya kowane nau'in bayanai, ko kowane . Lissafin dole ne da kansa ya zama jerin bayanai.

    • [Ma'anarsa. ]

      Lura. Sakamakon ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun bayanai ne a cikin wannan takaddar (musamman kaddarorin da aka ƙayyade a ciki) cewa kowane ko nau'in data na iya ya faru a cikin rukuni na. (Musamman, datatypes na iya zama memba na kansu, kamar yadda maiyuwa. ) Ƙuntatawa kawai shine cewa babu wani nau'in bayanai da zai iya zama memba na tarin. .

    Misali, alama guda ɗaya daga tana cikin sararin darajar datatype, yayin da jerin irin waɗannan alamun suna cikin sararin darajar datatype.

    2. 4. 1. 1 Atomic Datatypes

    Nau'in bayanai yana kunshe da saitin "atomic" ko darajoji na farko

    Lura. A wasu lokuta ana ɗaukar ƙimar atomic kuma ana siffanta su a matsayin "ba za a iya rushewa ba," amma ƙimar da ke cikin nau'ikan bayanai da yawa da aka ayyana a nan suna da tsarin ciki wanda ake amfani da shi don tantance ko takamaiman ƙima sun gamsar da ƙuntatawa daban-daban (e. g. g. iyakoki na sama da ƙananan bayanai). Wasu ƙayyadaddun bayanai waɗanda ke amfani da nau'ikan bayanan da aka ayyana a nan na iya ayyana ayyukan da ke ba da tsarin ciki ga ƙima da fallasa ko aiki akan wannan tsarin.

    Datatype's tarin ne wanda tsarinsa na ciki ya keɓanta da nau'in bayanai da ake tambaya

    Akwai nau'in bayanai guda ɗaya () da nau'ikan bayanai da yawa waɗanda suke da su. Babu datatype mai yiwuwa a matsayin sa.

    2. 4. 1. 2 Lissafin Bayanan Bayanai

    Ana samun nau'ikan bayanai koyaushe daga wani nau'in; . . Nau'in datatype shine saitin tsayin iyaka na sifili ko fiye da dabi'u, inda kowace ƙima aka zana daga cikin kuma ba ta da farin sarari. A datatype saitin ne wanda kowannensu shine jerin keɓaɓɓen sararin samaniya na

    [Ma'anar. ]. dole ne zama.

    Misali

    ____5

    ____2

    Datatype na iya zama na yau da kullun ko nau'in data wanda ke ba da izinin sararin samaniya (kamar ko) ko duk wanda ke ba da damar sarari. Saboda an raba abubuwa da farar sararin samaniya kafin a tsara su zuwa ƙima, babu farar sarari da zai taɓa bayyana a cikin abin, ko da nau'in abu ya ba shi damar a ka'ida.

    Misali

    ______7

    ____10

    A cikin misalin da ya gabata, ƙimar wani abu mai mahimmanci shine 18 maimakon 3

    Ka'idoji masu zuwa suna aiki lokacin da nau'in bayanai ke ta nau'in bayanai

    Tsawon kowane ɗayan, kuma an auna shi cikin adadin abubuwan jeri

    Don nau'ikan bayanai, an yi shi da sararin samaniya-rabu na. . Hakazalika, ana kwatanta ƙididdiga da ƙididdiga da gabaɗayan , ba ga abubuwan jeri ɗaya ba, kuma ana amfani da su ga duka. Lissafi iri ɗaya ne idan kuma kawai idan tsayinsu iri ɗaya ne kuma abubuwan su iri ɗaya ne; . Kuma jeri mai tsayi ɗaya wanda abunsa shine ƙimar atomic V1 daidai yake ko kuma yayi daidai da lissafin wanda abun shine ƙimar atomic V2 idan kuma idan V1 yayi daidai ko kuma yayi kama da V2.

    Misali

    ____11

    Yin amfani da, taswirorin datatype kowane ƙima zuwa ga rabe-raben sararin samaniya na duk abubuwan da ke cikin ƙimar (domin).

    2. 4. 1. 3 Union datatypes

    Ana iya bayyana nau'ikan ƙungiyar ta hanyoyi biyu. Lokacin da nau'in ƙungiyar ke ta, ta, kuma su ne "ƙungiyoyin da aka ba da oda" nasa, da.

    Za a lura cewa ƙungiyar, kamar yadda aka ayyana, ba koyaushe ba ne aiki. Ƙimar da aka bayar na iya taswira zuwa ɗaya ko fiye da ƙima na nau'ikan bayanai daban-daban, kuma ƙila ba a san ko wace ƙima ya kamata a fifita a cikin mahallin da aka bayar ba. Lokacin da aka yi amfani da nau'ikan bayanan da aka ayyana a nan a cikin mahallin, ana iya amfani da sifa

    <cerealSizes xsi:type='sizes'> 8 10.5 12 </cerealSizes>
    
    8 da aka ayyana a sashe don nuna wace ƙimar wacce shine abun ciki na abun da ya kamata ta taswira zuwa. Ana iya amfani da wasu ƙa'idodi (kamar nau'in ƙa'idodin tilastawa) a wasu mahallin don tantance ƙimar da za a yi amfani da ita.

    Lokacin da wani nau'in ƙungiyar ya bayyana ta wani, ta, kuma su ne sassansa, da.

    Nau'in bayanai koyaushe suna bambanta da juna; . . A halin yanzu babu

    Misali

    A kan tsarin XML da kansa wani misali ne na wani nau'i. Kamar yadda aka nuna a ƙasa, ƙungiyar ce ta nonNegativeInteger da ƙidayar da memba ɗaya, kirtani "mara iyaka. "

    ____13

    Nau'i na iya ƙunsar kowace lamba (sifili ko fiye) na talakawa ko

    [Ma'anarsa. ]

    Lura. Nau'o'in memba na ƙungiyar sune waɗannan nau'ikan ma'anoni masu sauƙi waɗanda aka bayar a cikin kadarorin lokacin da aka wakilta nau'ikan bayanai ta amfani da abubuwan tsara XSD, kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin

    [Ma'anarsa. ]. Idan U ne, to (a) yana cikin membobin U's transitive, da (b) ga kowane nau'in datatypes T1 da T2, idan T1 yana cikin membobin U's transitive memba kuma T2 yana ɗaya daga cikin T1, to, T2 shima yana cikin memba na U.

    Dole ne na must not ya ƙunshi ko kowane nau'in bayanai ko daga.

    [Ma'anarsa. ]

    [Ma'anarsa. ]. Wannan jeri na datatypes an ce ya shiga tsakanin M da U. Lokacin da mahallin ya fayyace U da M, ana kiran nau'ikan bayanan da ke cikin jeri azaman ƙungiyoyin shiga tsakani. Saitin ƙungiyoyi masu shiga tsakani shine saitin fanko lokacin da M yana ɗaya daga cikin U

    [Ma'anar. ]. [Ma'anar. ]. Wannan shine memba na asali na ƙungiyar.

    Tsarin da aka ƙayyade a cikin ma'anar (wato, tsari na simpleType>'ya'yan ƙungiyar> kashi, ko kuma tsarin s a cikin sifa ____29 a cikin yanayin datatypes da aka ayyana a cikin takaddun tsari) yana da mahimmanci. Yayin tabbatarwa, ana inganta ƙimar wani sifa ko sifa akan tsarin da suka bayyana a cikin ma'anar har sai an sami daidaito.

    Misali

    Idan aka ba da ma'anar da ke ƙasa, alal misali, misali na farko na girman> element yana inganta azaman, na biyu da na uku a matsayin

    ____15

    ____16

    Kowace ƙimar datatype an tsara ta akan ƙimar waccan ƙimar da aka samu ta amfani da na farkon wanda sararin darajarsa take.

    Ka'idoji masu zuwa suna aiki lokacin da nau'in bayanai ke ta nau'in bayanai

    2. 4. 2 Musamman vs. Na farko vs. Nau'in Bayanai na yau da kullun

    Bayan haka, muna bambance tsakanin, da (ko) nau'ikan bayanai

    • [Ma'anar. ]. Su ne na musamman saboda matsayinsu a cikin nau'in matsayi.

    • [Ma'anar. ]. Duk nau'ikan bayanai suna da nasu, amma nasu kuma dole ne a bayar da su cikin larabci; .

      Lura. Na'urori masu daidaitawa, kamar yadda aka ƙayyade a wani wuri, dole dole ne su goyi bayan duk manyan bayanan da aka ayyana a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai; .

      Masu sarrafawa maiyuwa Taimako ga nau'in bayanan ƙima-ƙira da aka ƙayyade a cikin, misali,.

    • [Ma'anar. ]. .

    A cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun, alal misali, nau'in data ne bisa ƙayyadaddun ra'ayi na lissafi wanda ba a fayyace shi cikin sharuddan sauran nau'ikan bayanai ba, alhali yana daga mafi yawan nau'in bayanai na gaba ɗaya.

    2. 4. 2. 1 Ƙuntatawa na tushen fuska

    [Ma'anar. ]. Dole ne na a dole ya zama ko dai a ko kuma nau'in data.

    2. 4. 2. 2 Gina ta Lissafi

    Ana iya samun nau'in datatype daga wani nau'in data (nasa) ta hanyar gina sifili mai tsayi ko fiye da ƙimar sa. . Datatypes suna da wannan a matsayin su. Ya kamata a lura da cewa saboda da kuma na kowane datatype dole ne subsets na da na, kowane datatype a matsayin a na tushen sa.

    2. 4. 2. 3 Gina ta Ƙungiyar

    Ta hanyar haɗa su da, sabili da haka, su da, ɗayan datatype za a iya samo su daga ɗaya ko fiye da nau'in bayanai. . . Ya kamata a lura da cewa saboda da kuma na kowane datatype dole ne subsets na da na, kowane datatype a matsayin a na tushen sa.

    2. 4. 3 Ma'anar, Ƙaddamarwa, Ƙuntatawa, da Ƙira

    Ko da yake ma'anar, ƙididdigewa, ƙuntatawa, da gini sun bambanta a zahiri, ana yin su akai-akai ta hanyoyi iri ɗaya a aikace.

    Ta 'ma'anar,' muna nufin fayyace ƙayyadaddun abubuwan da suka dace da nau'in datatype, musamman ta, da.

    Wannan ƙayyadaddun yana bayyana kaddarorin da daidaitattun nau'ikan bayanai. A yana nan a cikin kowane ingantaccen tsari na kowane ɗayan waɗannan nau'ikan bayanai;

    Lura. Ana ba da kaddarorin kowane nau'in bayanai a cikin takaddun don aiwatarwa da ake tambaya, ba a nan ba. A madadin, nau'in data na farko wanda ba a kayyade ba a cikin wannan takarda za'a iya ƙayyade shi a cikin takarda daban wanda ba a ɗaure da takamaiman aiwatarwa ba;

    A isa ga duk sauran datatypes. Ana iya fitar da kaddarorin nau'in bayanai daga nau'ikan bayanai da kaddarorin, idan akwai. Wannan shine yadda za'a iya bayyana duk nau'ikan bayanai

    Alakar datatype da nata, ko da nata, da sauransu ana kiranta da 'derivation. '

    Sai dai idan an haɗa ta da wani nau'in bayanai, nau'in tushe. Nau'in tushe sun haɗa da, da

    [Ma'anarsa. ]

    Lura. Abin da ya gabata baya hana na samun ƙima. . . )

    Gabaɗaya,

    Idan kuma kawai idan ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan sharuɗɗan ya cika, ana samun nau'in datatype R daga wani nau'in nau'in B

    • R yana wakiltar B

    • Akwai nau'in datatype X wanda shine R kuma an samo shi daga B

    A datatype dole ne ya kasance daga kanta. A wasu kalmomi, dole ne dangantaka ta nau'in tushe ta zama acyclic.

    Sakamakon abin da ya gabata, kowane nau'in bayanai ban da daga

    Domin kowane nau'in datatype yana da daidai guda ɗaya da kowane nau'in bayanai ban da an samo shi kai tsaye ko a kaikaice daga, alaƙar tana tsara kowane nau'i mai sauƙi zuwa tsarin bishiyar, wanda aka sani da tsarin haɓakawa.

    Ma'anar wani nau'in data wanda kuma su ne rukuni na waɗanda nasa ana nufin ta'ƙuntatawa. '

    A bisa ka'ida, Lokacin da nau'in datatype R shine ƙuntatawa na wani nau'in data B,

    • R shine juzu'in B's, kuma

    • Babban rukuni ne na B

    Lura cewa duk nau'ikan bayanai guda uku suna samar da na'urar. yana yin haka ta hanyar, yayin da ko saboda waɗanda suka ɗauka a matsayin. A sakamakon haka, duk datatypes na. Wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai ba shi da wani tanadi don ayyana nau'in data ta yadda ya fi girma ko fiye da shi

    Kalmar 'gini' tana nufin tsarin ƙirƙirar bayanai ta hanyar ayyana shi ta hanyar wani

    [Ma'anar. ]. Waɗannan nau'ikan nau'ikan guda uku ana kiran su "", " ta ", da " ta ", bi da bi. Za a iya fahimtar nau'ikan bayanan da aka gina ta wannan hanya sosai (don dalilai na tsarin nau'in) dangane da (a) kaddarorin bayanan (s) da aka gina su, da (b) abubuwan da suka mallaka. . Wannan yana bambanta nau'ikan bayanai daga nau'ikan bayanai da nau'ikan bayanai, waɗanda kawai za a iya fahimtar su ta hanyar takaddun bayanai (musamman, bayanin su a wani wuri a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai ko, don, a cikin takamaiman takamaiman takaddun aiwatarwa). Kowane datatype ne, kuma kowane datatype ne.

    2. 4. 4 Gina-in vs. Nau'in Bayanan Mai Amfani

    • [Ma'anarsa. ]

    • [Ma'anarsa. ]

    An tsara nau'ikan bayanan don samuwa ta atomatik a duk lokacin da aka aiwatar da wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai ko amfani da shi, ko da kansa ko a matsayin wani ɓangare na yaren baƙi. Ana haɗa nau'ikan bayanan ta atomatik cikin kowane ingantaccen tsari a cikin yaren da aka ayyana ta. Sauran harsunan masauki ya kamata su saka cewa duk nau'in bayanan da aka siffanta anan a matsayin ginannun abubuwan ciki ana samun su ta tsohuwa; . may specify that additional datatypes are automatically made available.

    Lura. Nau'in bayanai, ko ko, ana iya haɗa su ta atomatik a cikin kowane tsarin da wannan aiwatarwa ya aiwatar a wasu lokuta;

    Wannan ƙayyadaddun ba ya ayyana tsarin samar da nau'ikan bayanai don amfani; . dole ya zama yare mai masaukin baki ya tantance.

    [Ma'anarsa. ]

    Lura. Ta fuskar marubucin makirci, nuni ga nau'in data wanda ya zama zai iya nuna kowane ɗayan waɗannan, ko wasu.

    1 An sami kuskure lokacin bada sunan datatype.

    2 Nau'in bayanai shine nau'in data wanda ba'a samar dashi ta ma'anar ma'anar harshe mai masauki ba (e. g. g. saboda ba a tuntubi daftarin tsarin da ya dace ba).

    3 Nau'in bayanai shine wanda aiwatarwa baya goyan bayansa.

    4 Nau'in bayanai shine nau'in data wanda wasu aiwatarwa ke samarwa ta atomatik amma ba ta hanyar aiwatarwa da ake amfani da su ba.

    5 Datatype shine nau'in data tare da nau'in tushe shine

    Wataƙila waɗannan lokuta ba za a iya bambanta su ta fuskar aiwatarwa ba

    Lura. Bayanan bayanan da ake magana a nan ana kiran su a cikin kalmomi na

    Babu wani bambanci na ra'ayi tsakanin nau'ikan bayanan da aka haɗa a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai da nau'ikan bayanan da masu zanen ƙirƙira ɗaya suka ƙirƙira. Nau'in bayanan sune waɗanda ake tunanin sun zama gama gari wanda yawancin masu ƙirƙira ƙirƙira za su sake ƙirƙira su idan ba a ayyana su a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai ba.

    3 Haɗe-haɗen Bayanai da Ma'anarsu

    Yadda ake Cire wani Abu daga Takardun XML a C #?

    Zane mai nuna alaƙar haɓaka nau'in matsayi. (Ana samun cikakken bayani game da zane daban. ). )

    Kowace ginanniyar nau'in bayanai da aka ayyana a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun ana iya yin magana ta musamman ta amfani da Bayanin URI mai zuwa

    1. Tushen URI shine sararin sunan URI don Tsarin XML

    2. Sunan datatype shine mai gano guntu

    Misali, ana amfani da URI don magance nau'in data

    • ______70

    Bugu da ƙari, kowane ɓangaren ma'anar facet ana iya magance shi ta musamman ta amfani da URI mai zuwa

    1. Tushen URI shine sararin sunan URI don Tsarin XML

    2. Sunan facet shine mai gano guntu

    Misali, ana amfani da URI don magance maxInclusive facet

    • ______71

    Bugu da ƙari, kowane ɓangaren amfani a cikin ginanniyar ana iya magance shi ta musamman ta amfani da URI da aka gina kamar haka.

    1. Tushen URI shine sararin sunan URI don Tsarin XML

    2. Mai gano guntun shine sunan, sannan wani lokaci ('

      <simpleType name='listOfString'>
        <list itemType='string'/>
      </simpleType>
      
      2') ya biyo baya, sannan sunan facet

    Misali, ana amfani da URI don magance amfani da maxInclusive facet a cikin ma'anar int.

    • ______73

    3. 1 Abubuwan la'akari da sararin suna

    An yi nufin amfani da wannan ƙayyadaddun nau'ikan bayanan da aka yi amfani da su tare da ma'anar ma'anar XML Schema da sauran ƙayyadaddun bayanai na XML. Nau'in bayanan da ke cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai suna da sunan sarari don sauƙaƙe amfani a cikin ma'anar ma'anar XML Schema

    • http. //www. w3. org/2001/XMLSchema

    Don sauƙaƙe amfani a cikin ƙayyadaddun bayanai ban da ma'anar ma'anar XML Schema, kamar waɗanda ba sa son sanin wani abu game da ɓangarori na Harshen Ma'anar Ma'anar XML ban da nau'ikan bayanai, kowane nau'in bayanai kuma ana bayyana shi a cikin sararin sunan wanda aka kayyade URI.

    • http. //www. w3. org/2001/XMLSchema-datatypes

    Hakanan ana iya haɗa kowane nau'in bayanai zuwa takamaiman sarari suna. (Duba cikin. )

    3. 2 Nau'in Bayanai na Musamman da aka Gina

    3. 2. 1
    3. 2. 1. 1
    3. 2. 1. 2
    3. 2. 1. 3
    3. 2. 2
    3. 2. 2. 1
    3. 2. 2. 2
    3. 2. 2. 3

    Nau'o'in bayanai guda biyu a saman nau'in matsayi mai sauƙi sune kuma

    3. 2. 1 kowane Mai Sauƙi

    AnySimpleType ƙwarewa ce ta kowane nau'i.

    Duba don ƙarin bayani game da wakilcinsa a matsayin a.

    3. 2. 1. 1 Wurin daraja

    Na shine saitin duka da na duk jerin tsayin iyaka tare da sifili ko fiye da abubuwa.

    Lura. Sakamakon wannan ma'anar, da ma'anar a cikin sashe na gaba, wasu dabi'u na wannan nau'in bayanai ba za su iya amfani da ma'anar wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai ba. Wato, kalmomin "mai yiwuwa" da "effable" ko "mai suna" sun bambanta ga wannan nau'in bayanai. Babu wani bambanci na aiki tsakanin yuwuwar da effable a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun, kuma bambancin galibin sha'awa ne. Saboda wasu harsunan masauki don nau'in tsarin da aka ayyana a nan na iya ba da damar hanyoyin gina ƙima banda taswira daga a, bambancin na iya zama mahimmanci a wasu mahallin. Sai dai in an kayyade, ya kamata a fahimci kalmar da ma'anar yuwuwar a cikin waɗannan mahallin.

    3. 2. 1. 2 Taswira na ƙamus

    Na shine saitin duk jerin tsayin iyaka na sifili ko fiye da s (kamar yadda aka ayyana a cikin) waɗanda za a iya samarwa. . Wannan daidai yake da haɗin kai da duk nau'ikan bayanai masu yuwuwa

    Shi ne ko aiwatar da wannan ƙayyadaddun yana tallafawa samarwa daga ko samarwa daga duka biyun. Duba

    Ita ce ƙungiyar duk nau'ikan bayanai da duk jerin bayanai. Ya kamata a lura cewa wannan ba aiki ba ne. Ƙimar da aka bayar na iya taswira zuwa ɗaya ko fiye da ƙima na nau'ikan bayanai daban-daban, kuma ƙila ba a san ko wace ƙima ya kamata a fifita a cikin mahallin da aka bayar ba. Lokacin da aka yi amfani da nau'ikan bayanan da aka ayyana a nan a cikin mahallin, ana iya amfani da sifa

    <cerealSizes xsi:type='sizes'> 8 10.5 12 </cerealSizes>
    
    8 da aka ayyana a sashe don nuna wace ƙimar wacce shine abun ciki na abun da ya kamata ta taswira zuwa. Ana iya amfani da wasu ƙa'idodi (kamar nau'in ƙa'idodin tilastawa) a wasu mahallin don tantance ƙimar da za a yi amfani da ita.

    3. 2. 1. 3 Fuska

    Lokacin da aka bayyana sabon nau'in bayanai, dole a yi amfani dashi azaman. Sakamakon haka, babu kai tsaye.

    3. 2. 2 kowane AtomicType

    [Ma'anarsa. ]. Kuma kowane nau'in AtomicType shine ƙungiyoyin duk nau'ikan bayanai' kuma, kowane nau'in AtomicType shine ƙungiyar su.

    Duba don ƙarin bayani game da wakilcinsa a matsayin a.

    3. 2. 2. 1 Wurin daraja

    Ƙungiyar ita ce ƙungiyar duk nau'ikan bayanai da aka ayyana a nan ko aka bayar a matsayin

    3. 2. 2. 2 Taswira na ƙamus

    Na shine saitin duk jerin tsayin iyaka na sifili ko fiye s (kamar yadda aka ayyana a cikin) waɗanda za a iya samarwa. . Wannan daidai yake da ƙungiyar duk nau'ikan bayanai

    Shi ne ko aiwatar da wannan ƙayyadaddun yana tallafawa samarwa daga ko samarwa daga duka biyun. Duba

    The na wakiltar ƙungiyar duk nau'ikan bayanai. Ya kamata a lura cewa wannan ba aiki ba ne. Ƙimar da aka bayar na iya taswira zuwa ɗaya ko fiye da ƙima na nau'ikan bayanai daban-daban, kuma ƙila ba a san ko wace ƙima ya kamata a fifita a cikin mahallin da aka bayar ba. Lokacin da aka yi amfani da nau'ikan bayanan da aka ayyana a nan a cikin mahallin, ana iya amfani da sifa

    <cerealSizes xsi:type='sizes'> 8 10.5 12 </cerealSizes>
    
    8 da aka ayyana a sashe don nuna wace ƙimar wacce shine abun ciki na abun da ya kamata ta taswira zuwa. Ana iya amfani da wasu ƙa'idodi (kamar nau'in ƙa'idodin tilastawa) a wasu mahallin don tantance ƙimar da za a yi amfani da ita.

    3. 2. 2. 3 Fuska

    Lokacin da aka bayyana sabon nau'in bayanai, dole a yi amfani dashi azaman. Sakamakon haka, babu kai tsaye.

    3. 3 Nau'in Bayanan Farko

    3. 3. 1
    3. 3. 1. 1
    3. 3. 1. 2
    3. 3. 1. 3
    3. 3. 1. 4
    3. 3. 2
    3. 3. 2. 1
    3. 3. 2. 2
    3. 3. 2. 3
    3. 3. 3
    3. 3. 3. 1
    3. 3. 3. 2
    3. 3. 3. 3
    3. 3. 4
    3. 3. 4. 1
    3. 3. 4. 2
    3. 3. 4. 3
    3. 3. 5
    3. 3. 5. 1
    3. 3. 5. 2
    3. 3. 5. 3
    3. 3. 6
    3. 3. 6. 1
    3. 3. 6. 2
    3. 3. 6. 3
    3. 3. 6. 4
    3. 3. 7
    3. 3. 7. 1
    3. 3. 7. 2
    3. 3. 7. 3
    3. 3. 7. 4
    3. 3. 8
    3. 3. 8. 1
    3. 3. 8. 2
    3. 3. 8. 3
    3. 3. 9
    3. 3. 9. 1
    3. 3. 9. 2
    3. 3. 9. 3
    3. 3. 10
    3. 3. 10. 1
    3. 3. 10. 2
    3. 3. 10. 3
    3. 3. 11
    3. 3. 11. 1
    3. 3. 11. 2
    3. 3. 11. 3
    3. 3. 12
    3. 3. 12. 1
    3. 3. 12. 2
    3. 3. 12. 3
    3. 3. 13
    3. 3. 13. 1
    3. 3. 13. 2
    3. 3. 13. 3
    3. 3. 14
    3. 3. 14. 1
    3. 3. 14. 2
    3. 3. 14. 3
    3. 3. 15
    3. 3. 15. 1
    3. 3. 15. 2
    3. 3. 15. 3
    3. 3. 16
    3. 3. 16. 1
    3. 3. 16. 2
    3. 3. 16. 3
    3. 3. 17
    3. 3. 17. 1
    3. 3. 17. 2
    3. 3. 17. 3
    3. 3. 18
    3. 3. 18. 1
    3. 3. 19
    3. 3. 19. 1

    An yi bayanin nau'ikan bayanan wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai a ƙasa

    Na'urori masu daidaitawa dole ne Ba wai suna goyan bayan bayanan da aka ayyana a cikin wannan siffar ba; . Ana iya sabunta wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai don haɗa sabbin nau'ikan bayanai.

    Lura. Masu sarrafawa mai iya Taimakawa nau'in bayanai na ƙima-point da aka ƙayyade a cikin, misali,.

    3. 3. 1 zaren

    [Ma'anarsa. ]

    Lura. Yawancin harsunan ɗan adam suna da tsarin rubutu waɗanda ke dogara ga abubuwan yara don sarrafa abubuwa kamar tsarawa biyu ko rubutun ruby ​​(duba Sashe na 8). 2. 4 na). A irin waɗannan lokuta, ya kamata a yi la'akari da nau'i mai rikitarwa tare da abun ciki mai gauraye. Sashi na 5 ya ƙunshi ƙarin bayani. 5 na

    3. 3. 1. 1 Wurin daraja

    Na shine saitin jerin tsayin iyaka na sifili ko fiye da s (kamar yadda aka ayyana a cikin) wanda abin da ake samarwa ya ƙunshi. . A shine sashin sadarwa na atomic;

    Shi ne ko aiwatar da wannan ƙayyadaddun yana tallafawa samarwa daga ko samarwa daga duka biyun. Duba

    Daidaito don shine ainihi. Ba a tsara oda ba

    Lura. Kamar yadda aka bayyana a ciki, rashin oda a cikin wannan ƙayyadaddun ba zai hana sauran aikace-aikacen kula da igiyoyi kamar yadda aka umarce su ba.

    3. 3. 1. 2 Taswirar Lexical

    Na shine saitin jerin tsayin iyaka na sifili ko fiye da s (kamar yadda aka ayyana a cikin) wanda abin da ake samarwa ya ƙunshi.

    Tasirin Lexical

    [1] stringRep . = * 

    */ (kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin)

    Shi ne ko aiwatar da wannan ƙayyadaddun yana tallafawa samarwa daga ko samarwa daga duka biyun. Duba

    Na ga da na duka sassan aikin ainihi ne

    3. 3. 1. 3 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. tare da abubuwan da aka nuna; . may be specified in the development of new types if the value provided is at least as restrictive as the one shown:

    • = kiyayewa

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = karya
    • = karya
    • = iyaka mara iyaka
    • = karya

    3. 3. 1. 4 Nau'in bayanai da aka samo

    An samo nau'in data mai zuwa daga

    3. 3. 2 boolin

    [Ma'anarsa. ]

    3. 3. 2. 1 Wurin daraja

    yana da ma'ana ta dabi'u biyu. {gaskiya, karya}

    3. 3. 2. 2 Taswirar Lexical

    sarari na lexical ya ƙunshi kalmomi huɗu.

    Tasirin Lexical

    [2]   booleanRep . = '

    <simpleType name='listOfString'>
      <list itemType='string'/>
    </simpleType>
    
    6'. '____77'. '
    <simpleType name='listOfString'>
      <list itemType='string'/>
    </simpleType>
    
    8'. '
    <simpleType name='listOfString'>
      <list itemType='string'/>
    </simpleType>
    
    9'

    Maganar ita ce;

    3. 3. 2. 3 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanai da duk nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga gare ta ta hanyar ƙuntatawa suna da halaye masu zuwa. tare da kafaffen dabi'u; . must not be altered from the values displayed:

    • = rushewa (kafaffen)

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = karya
    • = karya
    • = iyaka
    • = karya

    3. 3. 3 desimal

    [Ma'anarsa. ]. Tsarin decimal shine saitin lambobi da aka samu ta hanyar rarraba lamba ta hanyar mara mara kyau na goma, i. e. e. , kamar yadda i ya bayyana. Wannan sarari darajar ba ya nuna daidaito; . Lambar 0 bai bambanta da lamba 2 ba. 00. Dangantakar oda akan decimal wani yanki ne na tsarin oda akan lambobi na gaske

    Lura. Dubi Ƙididdigar Ƙididdigar Ƙirar ƙima don nau'in bayanai na ƙima wanda ƙimarsa ke nuna daidaito.

    3. 3. 3. 1 Taswirar Lexical

    decimal yana da wakilci na ƙamus wanda ya ƙunshi jerin lambobi mara iyaka mara komai (#x30–#x39) wanda aka raba ta lokaci azaman alamar ƙima. Misali. '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    00', '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    01', '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    02', '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    03'

    Wakilin Lexical

    [3]   decimalLexicalRep . =.

    Wurin ƙamus na ƙamus shine saitin ƙamus na wakilci wanda ya dace da nahawu na sama ko (daidai da) magana ta yau da kullun.

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    04

    Taswirar taswira daga ƙamus zuwa ƙididdiga daidaitattun ƙididdiga ne;

    Ma'anar ma'anar tana da tasirin ware wasu zaɓuɓɓuka daga cikin. Alamar zaɓin zaɓin da ta gabata ba a ba da izinin wasu ƙima ba. akwai dole Dole ne a sami aƙalla lambobi ɗaya zuwa dama da hagu na ma'aunin ƙima, wanda zai iya zama sifili.

    Ana ba da taswirar hukuma daga ƙididdigewa zuwa

    3. 3. 3. 2 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanai da duk nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga gare ta ta hanyar ƙuntatawa suna da halaye masu zuwa. tare da kafaffen dabi'u; . must not be altered from the values displayed:

    • = rushewa (kafaffen)

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = duka
    • = karya
    • = iyaka mara iyaka
    • = gaskiya

    3. 3. 3. 3 Datatypes dangane da decimal

    An samo nau'in data mai zuwa daga

    3. 3. 4 yawo

    [Ma'anar. ]. .

    3. 3. 4. 1 Wurin daraja

    Lambar ta ƙunshi duk lambobin da ba sifili ba.

    Lura. Kamar yadda aka bayyana a ƙasa, ƙimar notAnumber shine '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    05'. Saboda haka, a cikin rubutun Turanci gabaɗaya muna amfani da 'NaN' don komawa ga wannan ƙimar. Hakazalika, muna amfani da 'INF' da '-INF' don komawa zuwa dabi'u biyu tabbatacce Infinity da negativeInfinity, da '0' da '-0' don komawa zuwa sifili da negativeZero.

    An bayyana daidaito da tsari don kamar haka

    • Daidaituwa shine ainihi, sai dai  0 = -0  (kodayake ba iri ɗaya bane) da  NaN ≠ NaN  (kodayake NaN yana kama da kansa)

      0 da -0 don haka sun yi daidai don dalilai na ƙididdigewa da ƙuntatawa na ainihi, da kuma mafi ƙanƙanta da ƙimar ƙima.

    • Don ainihin ƙima, alaƙar oda akan iyo shine dangantakar oda don lambobi masu hankali. INF ta fi duk sauran kimar da ba NaN ba; . NaN yana tare da kowace ƙima a ciki har da kanta. 0 da -0 sun fi duk munanan lambobi kuma ƙasa da duk ingantattun lambobi

    Lura. Duk wata ƙima tare da ƙimar da aka yi amfani da ita don fuskoki huɗu masu ɗaure (, , , da ) za a cire su daga ƙayyadaddun sakamakon. Musamman, lokacin da aka yi amfani da NaN a matsayin ƙimar fuskar fuska ga fuska mai iyaka, tun da babu dabi'u tare da shi, sakamakon ya zama fanko. Idan aka yi amfani da wata ƙima don fuska mai iyaka, NaN za a cire shi daga ƙuntataccen sakamakon;

    Lura. Tsarin tsari 1. 0 na wannan nau'in data bai bambanta tsakanin 0 da -0 ba kuma NaN yayi daidai da kanta. An yi canje-canjen don sanya nau'in bayanai ya zama madubi sosai

    3. 3. 4. 2 Taswirar Lexical

    Na shine saitin duk lambobi masu ƙima tare da ko ba tare da ma'auni na ƙima ba, lambobi a cikin bayanin kimiyya (maɗaukaki), da '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    07', '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    08', '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    09', da '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    05'

    Tasirin Lexical

    [4]   floatRep . =.  .  .

    Samarwar yana daidai da wannan magana ta yau da kullun (bayan an cire farin sarari daga magana ta yau da kullun)

    _____111

    An ƙirƙiri nau'in data don aiwatarwa don sarrafa tsarin madaidaicin madaidaicin madaidaicin madaidaicin nau'in. Wannan ƙayyadaddun baya ƙayyadaddun takamaiman , amma yana tsara buƙatu akan kowane amfani. Duk wani taswirar da aka siffanta akan , aiki ne, yana biyan bukatun , kuma yana sarrafa taswirar ainihin ainihin '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
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    07', '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
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    </memo>
    05', da dai sauransu. , zuwa ga , ya gamsar da ƙayyadaddun buƙatun wannan ƙayyadaddun

    Tun da IEEE yana ba da damar wasu bambance-bambance a cikin zagayawa na dabi'u, na'urori masu sarrafawa da suka dace da wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai na iya nuna ɗan bambanci a cikin su.

    An bayar da shi azaman misali mai sauƙi na algorithm wanda ke samar da taswira mai dacewa, kuma wanda ke ba da mafi kyawun zagayawa mai yuwuwa-kuma don haka yana da amfani don tabbatar da sake haifuwa tsakanin aiwatarwa da aiwatar da zagaye-zagaye. Za a iya aiwatar da algorithm mai sauƙi mai sauƙi da aka yi amfani da shi ta hanyar amfani da algorithms na

    Lura. Tsarin tsari 1. Sigar 0 na wannan nau'in data bai ba da izinin zagaye algorithms waɗanda sakamakonsu ya bambanta da su ba

    An bayar da shi azaman misali na taswira wanda baya samar da tsayin da ba dole ba. Wasu algorithms waɗanda ba su samar da sakamako iri ɗaya don yin taswira daga ƙimar masu ruwa zuwa kirtani suna da izini ta

    3. 3. 4. 3 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanai da duk nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga gare ta ta hanyar ƙuntatawa suna da halaye masu zuwa. tare da kafaffen dabi'u; . must not be altered from the values displayed:

    • = rushewa (kafaffen)

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = bangaranci
    • = gaskiya
    • = iyaka
    • = gaskiya

    3. 3. 5 biyu

    [Ma'anar. ]  An tsara nau'in bayanan ninki biyu bayan IEEE sau biyu daidaitaccen nau'in bayanan iyo 64-bit.   Kowane nau'in bayanai na wurin iyo yana da sarari ƙima wanda shine juzu'in lambobi masu ma'ana.

    Lura. Babban bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin iyo da ninki biyu shine ma'anar ma'anar ma'anar 53 (vs 24), -1074 (vs -149), da 971 (vs 104)

    3. 3. 5. 1 Wurin daraja

    Na ƙunshe da lambobi marasa sifili  m × 2e , inda m lamba ce wadda cikakkiyar darajarta ba ta wuce 253 ba, kuma e ita ce lamba tsakanin -1074 da 971, mai haɗawa.

    Lura. Kamar yadda aka bayyana a ƙasa, ƙimar notAnumber shine '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
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    </memo>
    05'. Saboda haka, a cikin rubutun Turanci gabaɗaya muna amfani da 'NaN' don komawa ga wannan ƙimar. Hakazalika, muna amfani da 'INF' da '-INF' don komawa zuwa dabi'u biyu tabbatacce Infinity da negativeInfinity, da '0' da '-0' don komawa zuwa sifili da negativeZero.

    An bayyana daidaito da tsari don kamar haka

    • Daidaituwa shine ainihi, sai dai  0 = -0  (kodayake ba iri ɗaya bane) da  NaN ≠ NaN  (kodayake NaN yana kama da kansa)

      0 da -0 don haka sun yi daidai don dalilai na ƙididdigewa, ƙuntatawa na ainihi, da mafi ƙanƙanta da ƙimar ƙima.

    • Don ainihin ƙima, alaƙar oda akan ninki biyu shine alaƙar oda don lambobi masu hankali. INF ta fi duk sauran kimar da ba NaN ba; . NaN yana tare da kowace ƙima a ciki har da kanta. 0 da -0 sun fi duk munanan lambobi kuma ƙasa da duk ingantattun lambobi

    Lura. Duk wata ƙima tare da ƙimar da aka yi amfani da ita don fuskoki huɗu masu ɗaure (, , , da ) za a cire su daga ƙayyadaddun sakamakon. Musamman, lokacin da aka yi amfani da NaN a matsayin ƙimar fuskar fuska ga fuska mai iyaka, tun da babu dabi'u tare da shi, sakamakon ya zama fanko. Idan aka yi amfani da wata ƙima don fuska mai iyaka, NaN za a cire shi daga ƙuntataccen sakamakon;

    Lura. Tsarin tsari 1. 0 na wannan nau'in data bai bambanta tsakanin 0 da -0 ba kuma NaN yayi daidai da kanta. An yi canje-canjen don sanya nau'in bayanai ya zama madubi sosai

    3. 3. 5. 2 Taswirar Lexical

    Na shine saitin duk lambobi masu ƙima tare da ko ba tare da ma'auni na ƙima ba, lambobi a cikin bayanin kimiyya (maɗaukaki), da '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
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    </memo>
    07', '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
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    </memo>
    08', '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
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    </memo>
    09', da '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
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    </memo>
    05'

    Tasirin Lexical

    [5]   doubleRep . =.  .  .

    Samarwar yana daidai da wannan magana ta yau da kullun (bayan an kawar da farar fata daga magana)

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    30

    An ƙirƙiri nau'in data don aiwatarwa don sarrafa tsarin madaidaicin nau'in bayanan iyo-maki biyu na. Wannan ƙayyadaddun baya ƙayyadaddun takamaiman , amma yana tsara buƙatu akan kowane amfani. Duk wani taswirar da aka siffanta akan , aiki ne, yana biyan bukatun , kuma yana sarrafa taswirar ainihin ainihin '

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          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
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    </memo>
    07', '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
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    </memo>
    05', da dai sauransu. , zuwa ga , ya gamsar da ƙayyadaddun buƙatun wannan ƙayyadaddun

    Tun da IEEE yana ba da damar wasu bambance-bambance a cikin zagayawa na dabi'u, na'urori masu sarrafawa da suka dace da wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai na iya nuna ɗan bambanci a cikin su.

    An bayar da shi azaman misali mai sauƙi na algorithm wanda ke samar da taswira mai dacewa, kuma wanda ke ba da mafi kyawun zagayawa mai yuwuwa-kuma don haka yana da amfani don tabbatar da sake haifuwa tsakanin aiwatarwa da aiwatar da zagaye-zagaye. Za a iya aiwatar da algorithm mai sauƙi mai sauƙi da aka yi amfani da shi ta hanyar amfani da algorithms na

    Lura. Tsarin tsari 1. Sigar 0 na wannan nau'in data bai ba da izinin zagaye algorithms waɗanda sakamakonsu ya bambanta da su ba

    An bayar da shi azaman misali na taswira wanda baya samar da tsayin da ba dole ba. Wasu algorithms waɗanda ba su samar da sakamako iri ɗaya don yin taswira daga ƙimar masu ruwa zuwa kirtani suna da izini ta

    3. 3. 5. 3 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanai da duk nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga gare ta ta hanyar ƙuntatawa suna da halaye masu zuwa. tare da kafaffen dabi'u; . must not be altered from the values displayed:

    • = rushewa (kafaffen)

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = bangaranci
    • = gaskiya
    • = iyaka
    • = gaskiya

    3. 3. 6 tsawon lokaci

    [Ma'anar. ]  tsawon lokaci shine nau'in bayanai wanda ke wakiltar tsawon lokaci.   An zana manufar ɗaukar lokaci daga na , musamman tsawon lokaci ba tare da ƙayyadaddun wuraren ƙarewa ba. Misali, "kwanaki 15" (wanda mafi yawan wakilcin ƙamus a ciki shine "'

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
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    33'") ƙima ne; . zai iya samar da ayyukan tarawa da ragi tsakanin dabi'u da tsakanin / ƙimar nau'i-nau'i, kuma yana iya zama sakamakon raguwar ƙima. Koyaya, ƙari kawai ana buƙata don sarrafa Tsarin XML kuma an ayyana shi a cikin aikin.

    3. 3. 6. 1 Wurin daraja

    Za'a iya ƙirƙira ƙimar ƙimar lokaci azaman tuple na kadari biyu. Kowace ƙima ta ƙunshi adadin adadin watanni da adadin adadin daƙiƙai. Ƙimar dole ne ta zama mara kyau idan darajar ta kasance tabbatacce kuma dole ne .

    Abubuwan Dabi'u

    · watanni ·

    · seconds ·

    darajar; . must not be negative if is positive, and must not be positive if is negative.

    an yi odar wani bangare. An bayyana daidaiton daidaitattun daidaitattun; . Musamman, ana ƙididdige daidaito ko tsari na ƙima biyu ta ƙara kowane a cikin biyun zuwa kowane ɗayan darajoji huɗu masu zuwa.
    • 1696-09-01T00. 00. 00Z

    • 1697-02-01T00. 00. 00Z

    • 1903-03-01T00. 00. 00Z

    • 1903-07-01T00. 00. 00Z

    Idan an ba da umarnin duk nau'i-nau'i masu ƙima guda huɗu (ƙasa, daidai, ko mafi girma), to ana yin oda na asali nau'i-nau'i iri ɗaya;

    Lura. An zaɓi waɗannan dabi'u huɗu don haɓaka yiwuwar bambance-bambance a cikin sakamakon da zai iya faruwa, kamar bambancin lokacin ƙara P1M da P30D. 1697-02-01T00. 00. 00Z + P1M  1903-03-01T00. 00. 00Z + P30D , don  P1M  P30D. Idan an yi odar dabi'u biyu iri ɗaya idan aka haɗa su zuwa kowane ɗayan waɗannan dabi'u huɗu, za su riƙe tsari iri ɗaya idan aka ƙara su zuwa kowace ƙima. Don haka, ƙima biyu ba su misaltuwa idan kuma kawai idan za su iya haifar da umarni daban-daban idan aka ƙara su zuwa kowace ƙima

    Ƙarƙashin ma'anar da aka bayar kawai, ƙima biyu daidai suke idan kuma idan sun kasance iri ɗaya ne kawai

    Lura. An samo nau'ikan bayanai guda biyu gaba ɗaya (da) daga ciki

    Lura. Akwai hanyoyi da yawa don aiwatarwa , wasu daga cikinsu ba su dogara da aiwatarwa a kan ƙirar sassa biyu ba. Wannan ƙayyadaddun ba ya tsara wani takamaiman aiwatarwa, muddin sakamakon da ake iya gani ya kasance isomorphic ga waɗanda aka bayyana a nan

    Lura. Dubi bayanin kula a cikin , waɗanda suka shafi wannan nau'in bayanai

    3. 3. 6. 2 Taswirar Lexical

    Na su ne fiye ko žasa bisa ga abin kwaikwaya

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          date='1999-03-23'>
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    34

    Fiye da daidai, na shine saitin kirtani masu gamsarwa kamar yadda aka ayyana ta abubuwan samarwa masu zuwa

    Rubutun Wakilci na Lexical

    [6]   duYearFrag . = '

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    35'

    [7]   duMonthFrag . = '

    <memo importance='high'
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    36'

    [8]   duDayFrag . = '

    <memo importance='high'
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    37'

    [9]   duHourFrag . = '

    <memo importance='high'
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    </memo>
    38'

    [10]   duMinuteFrag . = '

    <memo importance='high'
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    36'

    [11]   duSecondFrag . = (. ) '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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    </memo>
    50'

    [12]   duYearMonthFrag . = (?).

    [13]   duTimeFrag . = '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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    </memo>
    51' (( ? ?). ( ?).

    [14]   duDayTimeFrag . = (?).

    Wakilin Lexical

    [15]   durationLexicalRep . = '

    <memo importance='high'
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    52'? .

    Don haka, a ya ƙunshi ɗaya ko fiye na , , , , , da/ko , a cikin tsari, tare da haruffa '

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    53' da '
    <memo importance='high'
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    51' (kuma watakila '
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    52') inda ya dace.

    Harshen da aka karɓa ta hanyar samarwa shine saitin igiyoyi waɗanda ke gamsar da duk waɗannan maganganu na yau da kullum guda uku masu zuwa

    • Maganar

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      57

      matches kawai igiyoyin da filayen ke faruwa a cikin tsari da ya dace

    • Kalmomin '____158' yayi daidai da igiyoyi waɗanda aƙalla fili ɗaya ke faruwa

    • Kalmar '____159' ta dace da igiyoyi kawai waɗanda '

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      51' ba shine hali na ƙarshe ba, ta yadda idan '
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      51' ya bayyana, wani abu ya biyo baya. Dokar farko ta tabbatar da cewa abin da ke biye da '
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      51' zai zama sa'a, minti, ko fili na biyu

    Matsalolin waɗannan maganganu guda uku na yau da kullun yana daidai da waɗannan (bayan an cire farin sarari da aka saka a nan don dacewa)

    ____10

    Don shine

    domin shine

    3. 3. 6. 3 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanai da duk nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga gare ta ta hanyar ƙuntatawa suna da halaye masu zuwa. tare da kafaffen dabi'u; . must not be altered from the values displayed:

    • = rushewa (kafaffen)

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = bangaranci
    • = karya
    • = iyaka mara iyaka
    • = karya

    3. 3. 6. 4 Nau'ikan Bayanai masu alaƙa

    Wadannan nau'ikan bayanai sun fito daga

    3. 3. 7 kwanan wata

    yana wakiltar lokaci-lokaci, zaɓin da aka yiwa alama tare da takamaiman yanki na lokaci. Ƙimar da ke wakiltar lokaci guda amma samun mabanbanta ɓangarorin yankin lokaci daidai suke amma ba iri ɗaya ba

    3. 3. 7. 1 Wurin daraja

    yana amfani da , ba tare da kaddarori ba sai an yarda ya kasance ba ya nan. Dukiyar ta rage

    Lura. A cikin sigar 1. 0 na wannan ƙayyadaddun, ba a ba da izinin kadarar ta sami ƙimar sifili ba. Shekarar da ta gabaci shekara ta 1 a cikin kalandar Gregorian proleptic, a al'adance ana kiranta 1 BC ko kuma 1 KZ, ana wakilta ta da ƙimar -1, 2 KZ ta -2, da sauransu. Tabbas, da yawa, watakila mafi yawan, nassoshi game da 1 KZ (ko 1 BC) a zahiri ba wai shekara ɗaya ba ce a cikin kalandar Gregorian mai rahusa amma ga shekara guda a cikin kalandar Julian ko “tsohon salon”;

    A cikin wannan sigar wannan ƙayyadaddun, an yi canje-canje guda biyu don yarda da amfanin da ake amfani da su. Na farko, an ba da izinin samun ƙimar sifili. Na biyu, ana canza fassarar dabi'u daidai da haka. darajar sifili tana wakiltar 1 KZ, -1 tana wakiltar 2 KZ, da sauransu. Wannan wakilci yana sauƙaƙa lissafin tazara da ƙididdige shekarun tsalle don kwanakin kafin zamanin gama gari (wanda zai iya zama dalilin da yasa masana taurari da sauran masu sha'awar irin wannan ƙididdiga tare da kalandar Gregorian proleptic suka karɓe shi), kuma ya yi daidai da bugu na yanzu na

    Lura cewa 1 KZ, 5 KZ, da sauransu (shekaru 0000, -0004, da dai sauransu). a cikin ƙamus na wakilcin da aka ayyana a nan) shekarun tsalle-tsalle ne a cikin kalandar Gregorian masu fa'ida da aka yi amfani da su don bayanan kwanan wata/lokaci da aka ayyana a nan. Siga ta 1. 0 na wannan ƙayyadaddun ba a sani ba game da jiyya na shekarun tsalle kafin zamanin gama gari. Idan tsare-tsaren tsare-tsare ko bayanan da ke akwai sun ƙayyade kwanakin 29 ga Fabrairu na kowace shekara kafin zamanin gama gari, to, wasu ƙididdiga suna ba da kwanan wata na 29 ga Fabrairu waɗanda ke aiki ƙarƙashin ingantaccen fassarar XSD 1. 0 zai zama mara aiki a ƙarƙashin wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai, kuma wasu waɗanda ba su da inganci za su yi aiki. Tare da wannan mai yuwuwar togiya, tsare-tsare da bayanai masu inganci a ƙarƙashin tsohuwar fassarar sun kasance suna aiki ƙarƙashin sabon

    Takura. Ƙimar Ranar-wata

    Dole ne kimar ta kasance ba ta wuce 30 ba idan ta kasance daya daga cikin 4, 6, 9, ko 11; .

    Lura. Dubi bayanin yarda wanda a cikinsa ya dace da ƙimar wannan nau'in bayanai

    Daidaito da tsari an tsara su a cikin. ana yin oda da kimarsu

    Lura. Tunda tsarin kimar da ke da dangi da wata ƙima wacce ba ta nan ana ƙaddara ta hanyar ƙididdige ɓangarorin yankin lokaci na duka +14. 00 da kuma -14. 00 zuwa ƙimar ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba, yawancin irin waɗannan haɗuwa za su kasance saboda ɓangarorin yanki guda biyu da aka ƙididdige suna ba da umarni daban-daban.

    Ko da yake da sauran nau'ikan da ke da alaƙa da kwanan wata da lokuta suna da oda kaɗan kawai, yana yiwuwa don nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga su sami cikakkun umarni, idan an taƙaita su (e). g. ta amfani da facet) zuwa ɓangaren ƙima tare da, ko ɓangaren dabi'u ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba. Irin wannan ƙuntatawa akan wasu nau'ikan masu alaƙa da kwanan wata da lokaci za su samar da cikakkun nau'ikan nau'ikan da aka yi oda. Lura, duk da haka, irin waɗannan ƙuntatawa ba su shafar ƙimar da aka nuna, don an ba , a cikin facet

    Lura. Oda da daidaito suna da gaske iri ɗaya don a cikin wannan sigar wannan ƙayyadaddun kamar yadda suke a cikin sigar 1. 0. Duk da haka, tun da yanzu ƙima ta bambanta ɓangarorin yanki na lokaci, daidaitattun ƙima tare da s daban-daban ba iri ɗaya ba ne, kuma ƙima masu matsananciyar s ƙila ba za su kasance daidai da kowace ƙima tare da ƙarami ba.

    3. 3. 7. 2 Taswirar Lexical

    Wakilan lexical ga sune kamar haka

    Tasirin Lexical

    [16]   dateTimeLexicalRep . =  '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
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    52'  '
    <memo importance='high'
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      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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        We need to discuss the latest
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    52'  '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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    51' (('
    <memo importance='high'
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      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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    66'  '
    <memo importance='high'
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      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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    66' ). ) ? . Wakilan ranar-wata

    Takura. Wakilan Ranar-wata

    A cikin a , a dole ya fara da lamba '

    <memo importance='high'
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    68' ko ya zama '
    <memo importance='high'
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    69' sai dai idan darajar da zai taswira . Ƙimar Ranar-wata") da aka bayar a sama.

    A cikin irin wannan wakilci
    • lamba ce da ta ƙunshi aƙalla lambobi goma sha huɗu, wanda aka zaɓa da alama ta ragi; . Yana wakiltar darajar

    • '____152' na gaba, '

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      51', da '
      <memo importance='high'
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      66', sun ware lambobi daban-daban

    • , , , , kuma lambobi ne da suka ƙunshi daidaitattun lambobi biyu na ƙima. Suna wakiltar , , , da dabi'u bi da bi

    • lamba ce da ta ƙunshi ainihin lambobi biyu na ƙayyadaddun ƙididdiga, ko lambobi biyu na decimal, maƙiyi na ƙima, da lambobi ɗaya ko fiye masu biyo baya. Yana wakiltar darajar

    • A madadin, haɗa , , , da masu raba su don wakiltar tsakiyar dare na yini, wanda shine lokacin farko na gobe.

    • , idan akwai, yana ƙayyade kashewa tsakanin UTC da lokacin gida. Matsalolin yankin lokaci ƙidaya ne na mintuna (wanda aka bayyana a matsayin ƙidayar sa'o'i da mintuna) waɗanda aka ƙara ko cirewa daga lokacin UTC don samun lokacin "na gida". '

      <memo importance='high'
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      04' madadin wakilcin yankin lokaci ne'
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      05', wanda shine, ba shakka, mintuna sifili daga UTC

      Misali, 2002-10-10T12. 00. 00-05. 00 (da tsakar rana a ranar 10 ga Oktoba, 2002, Lokacin Tsarar da Hasken Rana ta Tsakiya da Lokacin Gabashin Gabas a cikin U. S. ) daidai yake da 2002-10-10T17. 00. 00Z, bayan sa'o'i biyar bayan 2002-10-10T12. 00. 00Z

      Lura. Ga mafi yawancin, wannan ƙayyadaddun yana ɗaukar bambance-bambance tsakanin 'lokacin lokaci' da 'lokacin yanki' da aka shimfida a ciki. Siga ta 1. 0 na wannan ƙayyadaddun bai yi wannan bambance-bambancen ba, amma ya yi amfani da kalmar 'yankin lokaci' don bayanin ɓarnar yankin lokaci mai alaƙa da nau'ikan bayanai masu alaƙa da kwanan wata da lokaci. Wasu alamun amfani da farko sun kasance a bayyane a cikin wannan da sauran ƙayyadaddun bayanai. Sunaye kuma sune irin waɗannan alamun;

    Samarwar yayi daidai da wannan magana ta yau da kullun da zarar an cire farin sarari. ____11 Lura cewa samarwa ko wannan magana ta yau da kullun ba ta tilasta takunkumin da aka bayar a sama

    Don shine. The shine

    3. 3. 7. 3 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanai da duk nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga gare ta ta hanyar ƙuntatawa suna da halaye masu zuwa. tare da kafaffen dabi'u; . must not be altered from the values displayed:

    • = rushewa (kafaffen)

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. tare da abubuwan da aka nuna; . may be specified in the development of new types if the value provided is at least as restrictive as the one shown:

    • = na zaɓi

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = bangaranci
    • = karya
    • = iyaka mara iyaka
    • = karya

    3. 3. 7. 4 Nau'ikan Bayanai masu alaƙa

    An samo nau'in data mai zuwa daga

    3. 3. 8 lokaci

    yana wakiltar lokutan lokaci waɗanda ke maimaita lokaci ɗaya a kowace rana ta kalanda, ko kuma waɗanda ke faruwa a wasu ranakun kalanda na sabani.

    3. 3. 8. 1 Wurin daraja

    yana amfani da , tare da , , kuma ana buƙatar rashin zuwa. ragowar

    Lura. Dubi bayanin yarda wanda ya shafi ƙimar wannan nau'in data

    Daidaito da tsari an tsara su a cikin. Ana ba da umarnin ƙima (maki a cikin lokaci a cikin "rana na sabani") tare da la'akari da su

    Ranar kalanda (ko "lokacin gida") tare da mafi girma tabbataccen yanki na yanki yana farawa da wuri fiye da wannan ranar kalanda tare da ƙarami (ko mara kyau) yanki na yanki. Tun lokacin da aka ba da izinin bazuwar yankin lokaci sama da sa'o'i 28, yana yiwuwa ga lokacin da aka nuna ta ranar kalanda da aka bayar tare da yanki na yanki guda ɗaya ya rabu gaba ɗaya daga lokacin da aka nuna ranar kalanda iri ɗaya tare da wani biya daban - ranar farko ta ƙare. . Lokutan da ke cikin lokacin da ranar kalanda guda ɗaya ke wakilta an baje su akan tazarar sa'o'i 52, daga farkon ranar a cikin +14. 00 yankin lokacin biya diyya zuwa ƙarshen wannan ranar a cikin -14. 00 yankin lokaci biya diyya

    Lura. Tsarin dangi na dabi'u biyu, ɗayan waɗanda ba ya nan ana ƙididdige su ta hanyar ƙididdige ɓangarorin yankin lokaci na duka +14. 00 da kuma -14. 00 zuwa darajar ba tare da biya ba. Yawancin irin waɗannan haɗe-haɗe za su kasance saboda ɓangarorin yanki biyu da aka ƙididdige su suna ba da umarni daban-daban. Koyaya, don ƙimar da ba a keɓe lokaci ba, koyaushe za a sami ƙima mai ƙima a ɗaya ko duka ƙarshen tazarar sa'o'i 52 waɗanda suke (saboda tazarar tana da faɗin sa'o'i 28 kawai)

    Wasu nau'i-nau'i na zahiri waɗanda a cikin 1. 0 sigar wannan ƙayyadaddun yana nuna ƙima ɗaya a yanzu (a cikin wannan sigar) tana nuna ƙima daban-daban maimakon, saboda ƙimar yanzu sun haɗa da bayanin ɓarna yankin lokaci. Wasu nau'ikan nau'i-nau'i, kamar '

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      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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    06' da '
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    07', yanzu suna nuna daidai ko da yake mabanbanta dabi'u (saboda sun gano maki iri ɗaya akan layin lokaci); . 00. 00-03. 00> 02. 00. 00Z saboda 23. 00. 00-03. 00 a kowace rana daidai yake da 02. 00. 00Z a rana mai zuwa)

    3. 3. 8. 2 Taswirorin Lexical

    Kalmomin ƙamus na su ne "projections" na waɗanda , kamar haka

    Tasirin Lexical

    [17]   timeLexicalRep . = (('

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    66' '
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    66'). ) ?

    Samarwar yayi daidai da wannan magana ta yau da kullun, da zarar an cire farin sarari

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    12

    Lura cewa ba samarwa ko wannan magana ta yau da kullun ba kadai ke aiwatar da ƙuntatawa akan abin da aka bayar a sama

    Maganar ita ce;

    Lura. Taswirar '

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    13' da '
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    14' zuwa ƙima ɗaya, wato tsakar dare ( = 0 ,  = 0 , = 0)

    3. 3. 8. 3 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanai da duk nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga gare ta ta hanyar ƙuntatawa suna da halaye masu zuwa. tare da kafaffen dabi'u; . must not be altered from the values displayed:

    • = rushewa (kafaffen)

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. tare da abubuwan da aka nuna; . may be specified in the development of new types if the value provided is at least as restrictive as the one shown:

    • = na zaɓi

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = bangaranci
    • = karya
    • = iyaka mara iyaka
    • = karya

    3. 3. 9 kwanan

    [Ma'anarsa. ]   kwanan wata tana wakiltar manyan tazara na tsawon yini ɗaya a tsayi akan jerin lokutan , farawa daga farkon kowace rana, har zuwa amma ban haɗa da farkon ranar gobe ba). Don ƙimar da ba a lokaci ba, manyan tazara masu buɗewa suna rufe tsarin lokacin da ba na lokaci ba, ɗaya kowace rana. Don ƙididdige ƙididdiga na lokaci, tazarar tazarar tana farawa a kowane minti kuma don haka suna haɗuwa

    3. 3. 9. 1 Wurin daraja

    yana amfani da , tare da , , kuma ana buƙatar rashin zuwa. ragowar

    Takura. Ƙimar Ranar-wata

    Kimar dole ne ta kasance ba ta wuce 30 ba idan ta kasance daya daga cikin 4, 6, 9, ko 11, bai wuce 28 ba idan .

    Lura. Dubi bayanin yarda wanda ya shafi ƙimar wannan nau'in data

    Daidaito da tsari an tsara su a cikin

    Lura. A cikin sigar 1. 0 na wannan ƙayyadaddun, ƙimomi ba su riƙe ɓata lokaci a bayyane ba, amma ga abubuwan da ba su yi nisa da sifili ba za a iya dawo da ɓarnar yankin lokacin su bisa la'akari da lokacin farko na ƙimar su akan tsarin lokaci. Yana riƙe duk ɓarnar yankin lokaci

    Wasu dabi'u masu mabambantan yanki na lokaci waɗanda suka yi daidai da 1. 0 sigar wannan ƙayyadaddun, kamar 2000-01-01+13. 00 da kuma 1999-12-31-11. 00, suna cikin wannan sigar wannan ƙayyadaddun daidai (saboda suna farawa a lokaci guda akan layin lokaci) amma ba iri ɗaya bane (saboda suna da kuma suna riƙe ɓarna na yanki daban-daban). Wannan yanayin zai taso don kwanakin ne kawai idan mutum yana da nisa daga nesa-da-sifi yankin lokaci kuma saboda haka a cikin 1. 0 "sakin yankin lokaci mai murmurewa" ya bambanta da yanayin yankin lokaci wanda aka riƙe a cikin amfani da wannan sigar ta wannan ƙayyadaddun bayanai.

    3. 3. 9. 2 Taswirar Lexical

    Kalmomin ƙamus na su ne "projections" na waɗanda , kamar haka

    Tasirin Lexical

    [18]   dateLexicalRep . =  '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
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      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
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        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    52'  '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    52' ? . Wakilan ranar-wata

    Takura. Wakilan Ranar-wata

    A cikin a , a dole ya fara da lamba '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    68' ko ya zama '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    69' sai dai idan darajar da zai taswira . Ƙimar Ranar-wata") da aka bayar a sama.

    Samuwar yana daidai da wannan magana ta yau da kullun

    _____119

    Lura cewa ba samarwa ko wannan magana ta yau da kullun ba kadai ke aiwatar da ƙuntatawa akan abin da aka bayar a sama

    Don shine. The shine

    3. 3. 9. 3 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanai da duk nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga gare ta ta hanyar ƙuntatawa suna da halaye masu zuwa. tare da kafaffen dabi'u; . must not be altered from the values displayed:

    • = rushewa (kafaffen)

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. tare da abubuwan da aka nuna; . may be specified in the development of new types if the value provided is at least as restrictive as the one shown:

    • = na zaɓi

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = bangaranci
    • = karya
    • = iyaka mara iyaka
    • = karya

    3. 3. 10 gYear Watan

    gYearMonth yana wakiltar takamaiman watannin Gregorian a cikin takamaiman shekarun Gregorian

    Lura. Domin haduwar wata/shekara a cikin kalandar ɗaya ba ta cika yin daidai da haɗin wata/shekara a cikin wasu kalandarku ba, ƙimar wannan nau'in ba, gabaɗaya, ba za ta iya canzawa zuwa ƙima mai sauƙi wanda ya dace da haɗin wata/shekara a cikin sauran kalandarku. Don haka ya kamata a yi amfani da wannan nau'in tare da taka tsantsan a cikin mahallin da ake son juyawa zuwa wasu kalanda

    3. 3. 10. 1 Wurin daraja

    yana amfani da , tare da , , , kuma ana buƙatar zama ba ya nan. ragowar

    Lura. Dubi bayanin yarda wanda ya shafi ƙimar wannan nau'in data

    Daidaito da tsari an tsara su a cikin

    3. 3. 10. 2 Taswirar Lexical

    Kalmomin ƙamus na su ne "projections" na waɗanda , kamar haka

    Tasirin Lexical

    [19]   gYearMonthLexicalRep . = '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    52'  ?

    The yayi daidai da wannan magana ta yau da kullun

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    21

    Don shine. The shine

    3. 3. 10. 3 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanai da duk nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga gare ta ta hanyar ƙuntatawa suna da halaye masu zuwa. tare da kafaffen dabi'u; . must not be altered from the values displayed:

    • = rushewa (kafaffen)

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. tare da abubuwan da aka nuna; . may be specified in the development of new types if the value provided is at least as restrictive as the one shown:

    • = na zaɓi

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = bangaranci
    • = karya
    • = iyaka mara iyaka
    • = karya

    3. 3. 11 g Shekara

    gYear yana wakiltar shekarun kalandar Gregorian

    Lura. Domin shekaru a cikin kalandar ɗaya ba kasafai suke yin daidai da shekaru a wasu kalandarku ba, ƙimar wannan nau'in ba, gabaɗaya, ba sa canzawa zuwa ƙima mai sauƙi daidai da shekaru a cikin sauran kalanda. Don haka ya kamata a yi amfani da wannan nau'in tare da taka tsantsan a cikin mahallin da ake son juyawa zuwa wasu kalanda

    3. 3. 11. 1 Wurin daraja

    yana amfani da , tare da , , , , da ake buƙata don ba ya nan. ragowar

    Lura. Dubi bayanin yarda wanda ya shafi ƙimar wannan nau'in data

    Daidaito da tsari an tsara su a cikin

    3. 3. 11. 2 Taswirar Lexical

    Kalmomin ƙamus na su ne "projections" na waɗanda , kamar haka

    Tasirin Lexical

    [20]   gYearLexicalRep . =  ?

    The yayi daidai da wannan magana ta yau da kullun

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    22

    Don shine. The shine

    3. 3. 11. 3 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanai da duk nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga gare ta ta hanyar ƙuntatawa suna da halaye masu zuwa. tare da kafaffen dabi'u; . must not be altered from the values displayed:

    • = rushewa (kafaffen)

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. tare da abubuwan da aka nuna; . may be specified in the development of new types if the value provided is at least as restrictive as the one shown:

    • = na zaɓi

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = bangaranci
    • = karya
    • = iyaka mara iyaka
    • = karya

    3. 3. 12 g Watan

    yana wakiltar dukan kwanakin kalanda waɗanda ke maimaita lokaci ɗaya a kowace shekara ta kalanda, ko kuma waɗanda ke faruwa a cikin wasu shekara ta kalandar ta sabani. (Tabbas, kwanakin da suka wuce 28 ba za su iya faruwa a duk Fabrairu ba; 29 duk da haka an halatta. )

    Ana iya amfani da wannan nau'in bayanai, alal misali, don rikodin ranar haihuwa;

    Lura. Saboda haduwar rana/wata a cikin kalanda ɗaya ba kasafai suke yin daidai da haduwar rana/wata a cikin wasu kalandarku ba, ƙimar wannan nau'in ba su, gabaɗaya, suna da madaidaiciyar wakilci ko fahimta dangane da yawancin sauran kalanda. Don haka ya kamata a yi amfani da wannan nau'in tare da taka tsantsan a cikin mahallin da ake son juyawa zuwa wasu kalanda

    3. 3. 12. 1 Wurin daraja

    yana amfani da , tare da , , , kuma ana buƙatar zama ba ya nan. ragowar

    Takura. Ƙimar Ranar-wata

    Kimar dole ne ta kasance ba ta wuce 30 ba idan ta kasance daya daga cikin 4, 6, 9, ko 11, kuma bai wuce 29 ba idan .

    Daidaito da tsari an tsara su a cikin

    Lura. A cikin sigar 1. 0 na wannan ƙayyadaddun, ƙididdiga ba su riƙe ɓata lokaci a bayyane ba, amma don yankin lokaci za a iya dawo da abubuwan da ba su yi nisa da yankin lokacin su ba bisa la'akari da lokacin farko na ƙimar su akan tsarin lokaci. Yana riƙe duk ɓarnar yankin lokaci

    Misali wanda ke nuna bambanci daga sigar 1. 0 (duba don bayanin kula)

    • Rana ita ce kalandar (ko "lokacin gida") ranar da aka soke daga tazarar da ta dace; . 00 zuwa -11. 59 hada da

      --12-12+13. 00 < --12-12+11. 00  (kamar yadda --12-12+12. 00 ya kasance ƙasa da --12-12+11. 00, amma a cikin sigar 1. 0  --12-12+13. 00 > --12-12+11. 00 , tun daga --12-12+13. 00's "sake fasalin yanki na lokaci" ya kasance -11. 00)

    3. 3. 12. 2 Taswirar Lexical

    Kalmomin ƙamus na su ne "projections" na waɗanda , kamar haka

    Tasirin Lexical

    [21]   gMonthDayLexicalRep . = '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    23'  '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    52' ? . Wakilan ranar-wata

    Takura. Wakilan Ranar-wata

    A cikin a , a dole ya fara da lamba '

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    68' ko ya zama '
    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    69' sai dai idan darajar da zai taswira . Ƙimar Ranar-wata") da aka bayar a sama.

    The yayi daidai da wannan magana ta yau da kullun

    <memo importance='high'
          date='1999-03-23'>
      <from>Paul V. Biron</from>
      <to>Ashok Malhotra</to>
      <subject>Latest draft</subject>
      <body>
        We need to discuss the latest
        draft <emph>immediately</emph>.
        Either email me at <email>
        mailto:[email protected]</email>
        or call <phone>555-9876</phone>
      </body>
    </memo>
    27

    Lura cewa ba samarwa ko wannan magana ta yau da kullun ba kadai ke aiwatar da ƙuntatawa akan abin da aka bayar a sama

    Don shine. The shine

    3. 3. 12. 3 Fuska

    Nau'in bayanai da duk nau'ikan bayanan da aka samo daga gare ta ta hanyar ƙuntatawa suna da halaye masu zuwa. tare da kafaffen dabi'u; . must not be altered from the values displayed:

    • = rushewa (kafaffen)

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. tare da abubuwan da aka nuna; . may be specified in the development of new types if the value provided is at least as restrictive as the one shown:

    • = na zaɓi

    Nau'in bayanan da aka samo ta hanyar ƙuntatawa daga mai iya kuma ana ƙididdige ƙima ga masu zuwa.

    Nau'in bayanan ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu zuwa. dabi'u domin ta

    • = bangaranci
    • = karya
    • = iyaka mara iyaka
    • = karya

    3. 3. 13 g rana

    [Ma'anar. ]  gDay yana wakiltar kwanaki gabaɗayan a cikin wata na sabani—kwanaki da suke maimaita lokaci ɗaya a kowane wata (Gregorian). Ana amfani da wannan nau'in bayanan don wakiltar takamaiman ranar wata. Don nuna, misali, cewa ma'aikaci yana samun albashi a ranar 15 ga kowane wata. (Tabbas, kwanakin da suka wuce 28 ba za su iya faruwa a duk watanni ba; duk da haka an ba su izini, har zuwa 31.

    Lura. Saboda kwanaki a cikin kalanda ɗaya ba kasafai suke yin daidai da kwanaki a wasu kalandarku ba, ƙima, gabaɗaya, ba su da wani madaidaiciyar wakilci ko fahimta dangane da mafi yawan kalandar Gregorian. don haka ya kamata a yi amfani da hankali a cikin mahallin da ake son juyawa zuwa wasu kalanda

    3. 3. 13. 1 Wurin daraja

    yana amfani da , tare da , , , , da ake buƙata don ba ya nan. ragowar kuma dole ya kasance tsakanin 1 da 31.

    Daidaito da tsari an tsara su a cikin. Tunda ana ba da odar dabi'u (kwanaki) ta lokutan farko na su, yana yiwuwa ga alamu na zahiri su bayyana cikin tsari lokacin da ƙima ta bambanta da aƙalla sa'o'i 24. (Yana yiwuwa ƙimar su bambanta har zuwa awanni 28. )

    Misalai waɗanda za su iya zama abin banƙyama (duba ga bayanin kula)

    • ---15 ---16+13. 00

    • ---15-11. 00= ---16+13. 00

    • ---15-13. 00  ---16 , domin  ---15-13. 00 > ---16+14. 00 da kuma ---15-13. 00

    John Conner
    John Conner
    John Conner has written about blogger for more than 5 years and for congnghe123 since 2017

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